Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28435
標題: 硼對番木瓜幼株生理及無機養分濃度之影響
Effects of Boron on the Physiology and Nutritional Status of Papays(Carica papaya L.) seedling
作者: 林恆亮
Lin, Heng-Liang
關鍵字: 硼;番木瓜
出版社: 園藝學研究所
摘要: 
本省木瓜栽培面積約六千三百公頃,除受毒素病為害嚴重之外,硼缺乏症也是影
響品質、產量之因素。為明瞭硼對木瓜生理及無機養分濃度之影響,本試驗調查木瓜
植株缺硼處理後,組織內氮素代謝、碳素代謝、酵素活性及無機養分濃度變化之情形。
本試驗結果顯示,木瓜經不同濃度硼處理後第21天,0 ppm處理組出現新葉黃化,
質地變硬脆、生長勢下降,且根部褐化呈珊瑚狀。由石臘切片觀察,生長點分化發育
不完全,有中空斷裂現象。而 8 ppm處理植株老葉葉尖及葉緣呈現黃化壞疽現象。石
臘切片觀察葉原體發育已見雛形,但仍不完整。木質素經phloroglucin染色後,發現0 ppm
處理組,木質素形成多且濃密,有向組織內部延伸之趨勢。
缺硼處理組自處理後第21天開始生育受阻,葉面積維持在520 cm2左右,即不再
擴展,且植株地上部、根部、鮮重及乾物重、葉片含水量均較其它處理組低。
處理後第14天,缺硼處理組葉片氨態氮濃度急遽增加,及至第21天可溶性蛋白
質下降,而游離氨基酸的含量則於處理後第28天及第35天較高。葉片硝酸鹽含量於
各處理組均無顯著差異。缺硼處理組葉片可溶性碳水化物濃度,自第7天起急遽增加
且於試驗期間均維持在較高水平,而還原糖也於缺硼處理後第14、21天較高。缺硼處
理,抑制麩醯胺合成酉每、酸性磷酸酉每之活性,增加pexoxidase活性,但對硝酸鹽
還原酉每活性則無顯著影響。
調查木瓜葉片無機營養要素,缺硼處理組之氮、磷、鈣、銅、鐵、硼濃度均較低,
然而對鉀、鎂、錳、鋅濃度之影響較不顯著。試驗結果顯示,缺硼對木瓜生育影響甚
鉅,對於氮素、碳素代謝、酵素及營養要素都有相當程度之影響。

In Taiwan, an aggregate of 6300 hectares has been allocated for the cultivation of papaya. The plant, however, is devastated by ring spot virus diseases on the ond hand and plaqued occasionally by boron deficiency, which leading to the decreases in fruit quality and yields, on the other. In order to probe the effects of boron on the physiology of papaya, endeavors have been made to investigate the changes that boron deficiency could bring to metabolism, and inorganic nutritional status of the crop.
The results showed, when papaya was subjeted to boron deficiency for 21 days, symptoms such as yellowing of new leaves, tissues texture turning hard and brittle, growth retardation and the formation of brown, coralshaped roots were evident. Paraffin method demonstrated the primodia, in addition to being undergrown, were hollow and broken. At 8 ppm of boron, the tips and edges of the old leaves were yellow and necrosis. The development of primodia, as revealed by paraffin method, had taken place but not reached the stage of ompletion. Phloroglucin stain indicated lignin content in 0 ppm boron treated papaya was high and dense, which also showed a tendency of penetrating into the inward of the tissues. The growth of the boron-starvated plants was stunted. Their surface areas were around 520 cm2 and stopped to grow any larger. The fresh and the dry weight of their roots and the parts of plant above ground were lighter than that of their normal counter-parts. The same is true with their water content; the boron deficient plants contained less water.
In the course of boron deficiency, nitrogen in the form of ammonia rose sharply after 14 days of treatment whereas soluble proteins on the other hand decreased after 21 days of incubation. The amounts of free amino acids in the plant were higher as the deficiency proceeded to the 28th and 35th days. However, there was no perceptible change in nitrate level in plants which under went different treatments. The soluble carbohydrates in leaf surged drastically beginning with the 7th day of the treatment and remained high for the rest experimental period. However, the concentrations of reducing sugars did not show any sign of increase until the 14-21 day period was reached. Low boron regime inhibited glutamine synthetase and acid phosphatase activities but stimulated the activity of peroxidase. Interextingly, it had no effect whatsoever on nitrate reductase.
An assay of mineral elements in papaya leaf indicated that low boron uptake had led to the drop of N, P, Ca, Cu, Fe, B contents but not the levels of K, Mg, Mn and Zn. Furthermore, the conditions were harmful not only to growth but also to nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, enzyme activities and ion composition of papaya.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28435
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

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