Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28498
標題: `巨峰´葡萄變異株無子生成原因之探討
Studies on Seedlessness of a `Kyoho Mutant Grapevine
作者: 黃士晃
Huang, Shih-Huang
關鍵字: grape;葡萄;seedless;parthenocarpy;無子;單為結果
出版社: 園藝學系
摘要: 
本研究主要係探討一`巨峰´葡萄變異株之無子生成原因。藉由觀察此變異株與`巨峰´葡萄在園藝性狀及果實生長上之異同,利用花粉發芽試驗、胚珠與果實之切片觀察以及除雄與授粉試驗來探究其無子化發生之可能原因,並以分子標誌技術分析此變異株與數種有子及無子栽培品種在分子層次上之相似度。
`巨峰´變異株之枝條及葉片形態與`巨峰´並無明顯差異,主要差異在於花及果實。`巨峰´變異株之花器及果形均較細長,子房內之胎座及胚珠數目異常比率高,常造成不對稱之果形。`巨峰´變異株之果實較小,較`巨峰´早熟,但品質與`巨峰´並無顯著差異。
`巨峰´變異株由於開花時子房內異常胚珠率極高,花冠不易脫落,花粉發芽率較低且花粉管侵入花柱之數目少,導致大部分胚珠難以受精,僅極少數胚珠能正常受精而產生正常種子。`巨峰´變異株經除雄處理仍具有高著果率,應屬於單為結果之無子類型。
經RAPD及ISSR分析結果,`巨峰´與`巨峰´變異株兩者之間具有極高的相似度,分別可達到0.983及0.950,顯示兩者在基因層次上具有極高之相似性。16個葡萄品種其RAPD與ISSR之UPGMA相似度樹狀圖大致相近,分群結果支持各品種之親緣關係。

The possible cause of a `Kyoho´ seedless mutant was studies. Using `Kyoho´ as a check, the horticultural characteristics of the `Kyoho´ mutant was examined and pollen germination, anatomy of berries and ovules (seeds) and effects of emasculation and pollination were also investigated. The genetic similarity between the `Kyoho´ mutant and some seeded and seedless grapes were also analyzed by RAPD and ISSR markers.
There was no apparent difference in shoots and leaves between `Kyoho´ and the `Kyoho´ mutant. The major morphological variations were the flowers and berries and berries shapes of the `Kyoho´ mutant were more elongate. Most ovaries of `Kyoho´ mutant had abnormal placetae and ovules, which caused abnormal unsymmetrical shape. The berry of the `Kyoho´ mutant was smaller and rippened earlier than that of `Kyoho´, there was no significant difference in berry quality.
Because the percentage of abnormal ovules was high, the calyptrae can not fall easily, the pollen germination rate was low and the number of pollen tubes grew into styles was low, most ovules of `Kyoho´ mutant can not be fertilized normally. Only a few ovules can be fertilized and develop into normal seeds. The percentage of berry set in emasculation treatment was high. Suggesting that the seedlessness of `Kyoho´ mutant should be parthenocarpic.
The genetic similarity between `Kyoho´ mutant and `Kyoho´ analyzed by RAPD and ISSR markers were very high;0.983 and 0.950 respectively. The UPGMA similarity dendrograms based on RAPD and ISSR markers among 16 grape cultivars were similar and the grouping result supported the genetic relationships among cultivars.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28498
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

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