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Studies on Seedlessness of a `Kyoho Mutant Grapevine
The possible cause of a `Kyoho´ seedless mutant was studies. Using `Kyoho´ as a check, the horticultural characteristics of the `Kyoho´ mutant was examined and pollen germination, anatomy of berries and ovules (seeds) and effects of emasculation and pollination were also investigated. The genetic similarity between the `Kyoho´ mutant and some seeded and seedless grapes were also analyzed by RAPD and ISSR markers.
There was no apparent difference in shoots and leaves between `Kyoho´ and the `Kyoho´ mutant. The major morphological variations were the flowers and berries and berries shapes of the `Kyoho´ mutant were more elongate. Most ovaries of `Kyoho´ mutant had abnormal placetae and ovules, which caused abnormal unsymmetrical shape. The berry of the `Kyoho´ mutant was smaller and rippened earlier than that of `Kyoho´, there was no significant difference in berry quality.
Because the percentage of abnormal ovules was high, the calyptrae can not fall easily, the pollen germination rate was low and the number of pollen tubes grew into styles was low, most ovules of `Kyoho´ mutant can not be fertilized normally. Only a few ovules can be fertilized and develop into normal seeds. The percentage of berry set in emasculation treatment was high. Suggesting that the seedlessness of `Kyoho´ mutant should be parthenocarpic.
The genetic similarity between `Kyoho´ mutant and `Kyoho´ analyzed by RAPD and ISSR markers were very high;0.983 and 0.950 respectively. The UPGMA similarity dendrograms based on RAPD and ISSR markers among 16 grape cultivars were similar and the grouping result supported the genetic relationships among cultivars.
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