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Fabrication of in-plane thermoelectric microgenerators
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本研究利用標準0.35μm 2P4M CMOS製程製作微型熱電發電器，微型熱電發電器由200組熱電偶串聯構成，熱電偶之結構尺寸設計為長度130 μm及0.275 μm厚之結構，並利用標準製程中的多晶矽層，透過摻雜形成p-type與n-type熱電偶。微型熱電發電器的發電效率，取決於熱電偶冷熱兩端的溫度差，因此為了防止熱散失，保持溫度梯度，使用反應性離子蝕刻(RIE)蝕刻熱端熱電偶周圍之犧牲層，並於熱端熱電偶堆疊金屬板，增加熱端部分的吸熱面積；冷端熱電偶埋藏於二氧化矽層中，利用其低熱導率特性隔絕外部熱源。利用Coventor-Ware與ANSYS模擬內部溫度分佈與受到環境溫度變化時，產生的溫度梯度變化。經模擬計算微熱電發電器於溫差15 K時，輸出電壓為4.2 mV與輸出功率為551.25 nW，由實驗結果顯示，微型熱電發電器具有4.5 mV的輸出電壓及578.9 nW的輸出功率於溫度差15 K；電壓因子為39.438 mV/K/cm2以及功率因子為403.97 nW/K2/cm2，並藉由外加升壓轉換電路，將串聯五組的微型熱電發電器之輸出電壓，由0.3 V提升至電容中之2.125 V，再經由蓄電電路之整合，將微型熱電發電器所產生之電能儲存，此電壓已可供應於較低驅動電壓之電子元件。
A micro thermoelectric power generator fabricated by the standard 0.35 μm 2P4M (two polysilicon and four metals) CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) process was studied. The micro thermoelectric power generator is composed of 200 thermocouples in series, and the thermocouples are formed by p-type and n-type polysilicons. The dimensions of the thermocouples are 130 μm length and 0.275 μm thick, which can generate the maximum output power. In order to achieve the best thermoelectric generation efficiency, the hot-end is formed by the stacked and metals that are suspended by RIE etching, the cold-end is covered with a low thermal conductivity silicon dioxide layer to insulate the heat source. The CoventorWare and ANSYS are employed to simulate the temperature distribution of the thermoelectric generator. The simulation showed that the micro generator had an output voltage of 4.2 mV and an output power of 551.25 nW at the temperature difference of 15 K. Experiments depicted that the output voltage and output power of the micro generator were 4.5 mV and 578.9 nW, respectively, as the temperature difference was 15 K. The voltage factor of the micro generator was 39.438 mV/K/cm2 and its power factor was 403.97 nW/K2/cm2. Finally, the charging circuit is designed to carry out the output power storage. This work applied in the low power electrinic component.
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