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Seasonal Fluctuation in Mineral Composition, Ripening and Storage Physiology of 'King' Guava (Psidium guajava L. cv 'King') Fruits.
|關鍵字:||‘King' Guava;‘帝王’番石榴;Mineral Composition;Storage;Vapor Treatment;無機養分;貯藏;蒸熱處理||出版社:||園藝學系所||引用:||吳雅芳、陳紹崇、彭瑞菊、鄭安秀。2004。農產品外銷出口檢疫。台南區農業專訊。48: 9-11。 林慧玲。1998。番石榴果實後熟生理之研究。國立台灣大學園藝學研究所博士論文。255pp.。 洪明德。2003。絲瓜果實生長發育及貯藏溫度之研究。國立中興大學園藝學研究所碩士論文。75pp。 茅林春、王陽光、張上隆。2000。熱處理延緩桃果實的採後冷害。浙江大學學報農學與生命科學版。26: 137-140。 徐邦達。2003。葉綠素螢光和PAM螢光儀：原理及測量。光合作用研討會。pp. 1-9。 黃博雅。1998。蓮霧果實採收寒害及處理技術之研究。國立中興大學園藝學研究所碩士論文。105pp.。 黃弼臣。1979。番石榴經濟果樹下。豐年社。pp.133-150。 黃瑞華。2002。‘水晶拔’葉片無機養分週年變化及果實後熟生理之研究。國立中興大學園藝學研究所碩士論文。101pp.。 楊雨涵。2003。熱處理對柑桔類及香蕉品質之影響。國立中興大學園藝學研究所碩士論文。97pp.。 楊雅薰。1991。番石榴葉片及果實無機養分和碳水化合物濃度之調查。國立中興大學園藝學研究所碩士論文。101pp.。 農委會。台灣農業年報。2004。 劉玉章。1990。東方果實蠅卵及幼蟲致死高溫及低溫之研究。國立中興大學園藝學研究所碩士論文。53pp.。 蔡平里。1997。蔬果芬芳錄-千言萬語榴香。豐年社豐年叢書#972。pp.29-38。 鄭安亨。2005。‘珍珠拔’番石榴生育期間葉片、果實礦物元素及光合產物之變化與果實品質間之關係。國立中興大學園藝學研究所碩士論文 97pp. 謝慶昌、林慧玲、林榮貴、陳淑娟、馮詩蘋。1999。溫度與‘平核無’柿果酒精脫澀及軟化之關係。中國園藝。46:45-54.。 謝鴻業。1998。台灣番石榴品種的演進與發展。農業世界。174: 23-25。 顏秀芬。1986。番石榴果實呼吸型式及控制大氣組成貯藏延長其櫃架壽命之研究。國立中興大學園藝學研究所碩士論文。70pp.。 Abe, K. 1990. 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Leaf analysis was used to determine the seasonal changes of mineral elements of‘King’guava. Results showed that the microelement changed very little except for iron, which increased rapidly after September. The macronutrient concentrations remained rather stable during the period of July to September. Likewise the trend was the same for the months of January to March. By contrast, the calcium concentration dropped rapidly from April to August. It is concluded that July to September are the proper time to collect samples for leaf analysis according to the stable condition of the elements in the leaves. The range of variation of mineral elements of‘King’guava in summer and winter are as follows, and can be used as a guide for the diagnosis of mineral disorders in guava: N：1.86-2.11%；P：0.14-0.16%；K：1.18-1.31%；Ca：1.05-1.78%；Mg：0.33-0.34%；Fe：74-106ppm；Mn：63-69ppm；Zn：18-24ppm；Cu：15-29pp for the summer crop. Leaf mineral elements in winter crop (January to March)：N：1.23-1.60%；P：0.17-0.28%；K：1.23-1.60%；Ca：1.25-1.71%；Mg：0.16-0.22%；Fe：139-302ppm；Mn：86-104ppm；Zn：23-33ppm；Cu：18-48ppm.
Change in the respiration rate and ethylene production of‘King’guava at different developmental stages was also investigated. The‘King’guava fruit with a 2cm diameter was found to have a relatively high respiration rate on the day of sampling, which dropped gradually, rose again after day 4, and at the same time the fruit showed sign of browning. The respiration rate of middle-sized fruit with a diameter of 5cm to 7cm was relatively low, and the ethylene production rate from‘King’guava was also maintained at very low and steady states. No ethylene production was detected as the developmental stage advanced still further.
The‘King’guava with propylene treatment was found to have no capacity of autocatalytic ethylene synthesis. It is likely to be non-climacteric as evidenced by the fruit firmness, total soluble solids and change of peel color of the guava.
Effects of low temperature storage on the fruit quality of summer and winter crops stored at 1、5、10℃ were investigated. Samples were taken every week. The fruit firmness decreased with increased time of storing, and was found to be less firm at 5℃. The total soluble solids were higher in the winter fruit than those of the summer fruit. The ascorbic acid was found increased in summer crop while fruits were stored at 1℃ and 5℃. Soluble titratable acidity had no obvious change. No significant change was observed in appearance after the low temperature storage of guava, but browning symptom was found after it was returned to 25℃ for 3 days, especially those stored at 10℃ for 4 weeks. Fruit decay and hypha growth on the skin appeared to be apparent after being stored for 5 week and then returned to room temperature for 3 days. Our results showed that 1℃ seems to be the most suitable temperature for guava storage.
The vapor heat treatment was an effective means of controlling the oriental fruit fly in guava fruits. The treatment temperature was 46.5℃ for 15 or 35 minutes but over 40 minutes caused heat injury. Transportation at 1℃ for 7 days could keep the fruit quality. This finding may serve as a reference for transport and quarantine when exporting guava fruits.
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