Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28554
標題: 台灣有機稻米生產成本分析
An Analysis on Production Cost of Organic Rice in Taiwan
作者: 徐玉玶
Hsu, Yu-Ping
關鍵字: organic;有機米;production;translog;optimal scale;生產成本;超越對數函數;最適規模
出版社: 農業經濟學系
摘要: 
本文由有機稻米生產之實證成本模型瞭解各投入因素間之相互關係,另方面推估台灣有機稻米生產之最適經營規模,並探討提高生產效益之方法。本研究以超越對數成本函數進行實證分析,並以反覆近似無相關迴歸作為分析方法,對台灣有機稻米生產成本資料進行實證研究。重要實證結果如下:
1.自身價格需求彈性中土地、勞動、流動資產及固定資產均符合一般經濟理論。各因素間之交叉彈性中,固定資產除與有機肥無互補性外,與其他項間皆有互補關係;勞動與流動資產、土地與有機肥間、有機肥與生物防治、勞動與生物防治之間為互補,而勞動與土地、固定資產與有機肥、流動資本與土地以及有機肥與土地之間互有替代關係。
2.在有機米生產因素間之相互關係中,大部分因素間皆呈現互補關係,而若呈現替代關係則替代彈性絕對值多小於1,顯示當有機米生產農家對投入因素價格變動時,難有效選用替代投入,即生產有機米之農家對投入資源調整能力較缺乏彈性。
3.勞動價格變動引起其他因素需求量變動之淨效果皆小於反向淨效果,隱含當人力工資成本水準高漲情況下,則其他因素較難替代勞動投入的情況,因此有機米的生產成本會有居高不下的現象。
4.勞動與有機肥及生物防治間之替代彈性較其他因素間之替代大,意謂當在農村人力資源有限情況下,農民應該利用其他資源部分替代勞動力之投入來降低生產成本。
5.土地與流動資本間之替代彈性值最小,顯示流動資本並無法有效替代土地資源的投入。
6.在現有技術水準及資源配置下,當有機米栽種面積為1.14公頃時,農家的平均生產成本可以逼近最低點,而達成本最小化之有機米生產規模。

The objectives of this thesis are to understand the relationships between inputs, to study the optimal scale of organic rice farming, and explore ways of improving production efficiency and profit of organic-rice farms. By applying duality theory, this thesis sets up a transcendental logarithmic(translog)cost function. With the restrictions of symmetry and homogeneity, this study uses iterative seemingly unrelated regression method for perform empirical analysis. Penel date of 4 years with 25 farms is applied. Important empirical results are as follows:
1.Results show that there are more complementaries than substitutes between inputs. Elasticities of substitution between factors are mostly less than one. It shows that organic rice farms are inflexible in shifting inputs when relative input price changes, presenting the rigidity of resources adjustments on farm.
2.Net effects of factor demand changes induced by changes in labor price are smaller than the reverse effect. It means when wage increases, difficulties in substituting other factors with labor, will keep the production cost up high.
3.The elasticity of substitution between labor and biological control is the highest. It means that organic rice farms may use biological control methods to partly substitute labor when there is shortage of labor.
4.The effect of substitution between land and floating capital is the lowest. It means the resource of land is hard to be substituted by floating capital.
5.To minimize average production cost, the optimal scale of organic rice farming is 1.14 ha, under current production technique and input allocation.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28554
Appears in Collections:應用經濟學系

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