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Novel Projecting Element Design for the Kinect 3D Sensor
|關鍵字:||二元光學;binary optics;繞射光學元件;自由曲面;全像光學元件;Kinect;立體感測器;diffractive optical element;free-form surface;holographic optical element;Kinect;stereoscopic sensor||出版社:||機械工程學系所||引用:|| Microsoft Kinect for windows, http://msdn.microsoft.com/zh-tw/hh367958.aspx  J. O. Pages, J. Salvi, R. Garcia, and C. Matabosch, “Overview of coded light projection techniques for automatic 3D profiling”, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, vol.1, p.133-138, 2003  Z. J. Geng, “Structured-light 3D surface imaging : a tutorial”, IEEE Intelligent Transportation System Society, 2011  R. J. Valkenburg, and A.M. McIvor, “Accurate 3D measurement using a structured light system”, Proceedings of SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol.2909, p.68-80, 1997  A. Albarelli, E. Rodol`a, S. R. Bul`o, and A. Torsello, “Fast 3D surface reconstruction by unambiguous compound phase coding”, IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision Workshops, p.1670-1677, 2009  C. H. Chen, and A. C. Kak, “Modeling and calibration of a structured light scanner for 3-D robot vision”, IEEE Council on Robotics and Automation, p.807-815, 1987  Z. J. Geng, “Rainbow three-dimensional camera: new concept of high-speed three-dimensional vision systems”, Optical Engineering, vol.35, No.2, p.376–383, 1996  J. J. Le Moigne, and A. M. Waxman, “Structured light patterns for robot mobility”, IEEE Journal of Rrobotics and Aautomation, vol.4, No 5, p.541-548, 1988  N. G.. Durdle, J. Thayyoor, and V. J. Raso, “An improved structured light technique for surface reconstruction of the human trunk”, IEEE Electrical and Computer Engineering, p.874-877, 1998  J. Park, G. N. DeSouza, and A. C. Kak, “Dual-beam structured-light scanning for 3-D object modeling”, IEEE 3-D Digital Imaging and Modeling,p65-72, 2001  D. Sazbon, Z. Zalevsky, and E. Rivlin, “Qualitative real-time range extraction for preplanned scene partitioning using laser beam coding”, Pattern Recognition Letters, vol.26, No.11, p.1772-1781, 2005  J. Cheng, C. R. Chung, E. Y. Lam, K. S. M. Fung, F. Wang, and W. H. Leung, ”Structured-light based sensing using a single fixed fringe grating: Fringe boundary detection and 3-D reconstruction”, IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol.31, No.1, p.19-31, 2008  R. Benveniste, and C. Unsalan, ”A color invariant based binary coded structured light range scanner for shiny objects”, Proceedings- International Conference on Pattern Recognition, p.798-801, 2010  Prime Sense natural interaction, http://www.primesense.com/  B. Freedman, A. Shpunt, M. Machline, and Y. Arieli, “Depth mapping using projected patterns”, United States Patent 20100118123, 2010  A. Shpunt, and B. Pesach, “Optical pattern projection”, United States Patent 20100284082, 2010  Z. Zalevsky, A. Shpunt, A. Maizels, and J. Garcia, “Method and system for object reconstruction”, United States Patent 20100177164, 2010  G. Sansoni, L. Biancardi, U. Minoni, and F. Docchio, “A novel, adaptive system for 3-D optical profilometry using a liquid crystal light projector”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, v 43, No.4, p.558-566, 1994  安毓英, 曾小東, “光學感測與測量”, 五南出版社, 2004  C.M. Vest, “Holographic Interferometry”, Wiley, New York, p.155, 1979  J. W. Goodman, “Introduction to Fourier optics,” McGraw-Hill, Ch.4, 1968  E. Hecht, “Optics”, Fourth Edition , Pearson Education, 2002  金國藩等著, “二次光學”, 國防工業出版社, 1998  周海憲 程雲芳 “全息光學設計,製造和應用北”, 化學工業出版社, 2006  R. C. Fairchild, J. R. Fienup, “Computer originated aspheric holographic optical elements”, Optical Engineering, v ol 21, No.1, p. 133-140, 1982  H. F. Shih, “Optical head with two wavelengths in single path using holographic optical element”, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol.44, No.4, p.1797-1802, 2005  H. F. Shih, C. L. Chang, K. J. Lee, and C. S. Chang “Design of optical head with holographic optical element for small form factor drive systems”, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 41, No 2, p.1058-1060, 2005  Instrument Technology Research Center , http://www.itrc.narl.org.tw/  Hitachi digital media group, http://www.hitachidigitalmedia.com/  Zemax optical design program user’s guide version 10.0, focus software, incorporated, 2001  J. M. Miller, N. de Beaucoudrey, P. Chavel, J. Turunen, and E. Cambril, “Design and fabrication of binary slanted surface-relief gratings for a planar optical interconnection”, Applied Optics, vol. 36, N0 22, p.5717-5727, 1997||摘要:||
本研究針對Kinect立體感測器之二維繞射光學元件(diffractive optical element, DOE)做分析，探討其如何將雷射光束作繞射以得到均勻之結構光分佈，進而提出新型之全像光學元件(holographic optical element, HOE)設計，以取代該二維繞射光學元件，得到較佳之投影光束分佈。
首先將全像光學元件分為9個區域，利用光學設計軟體Zemax的"binary 1"表面型態，對描述自由曲面的相位多項式進行設計與優化。步驟分為三個階段：首先，分別對9個區域的正一繞射階進行繞射角計算；其次，將所有區域的繞射光束發散成面積相當的面光源；最後，再以高次項係數作像差修正，達到等同於原來的Kinect立體感測器之結構光分佈。此方法可以有效地利用自由曲面(free-form surface)透鏡之特性，達到均勻的結構光光強設計。
This study analyzed the two-dimensional diffractive optical element (DOE) of the Kinect stereoscopic sensor and discussed its capability to diffract a laser beam into space with uniform structured light distribution. Furthermore, a holographic optical element (HOE) design for replacing the two-dimensional DOE and obtaining better projecting light distribution was also proposed.
The HOE was segmented into nine divisions. The “binary 1” surface of the optical design software Zemax was adopted to design and optimize the phase polynomials of free-form surfaces. There are three steps in the optimization. First, the diffraction angles of the positive-one diffraction orders of nine divisions were calculated. Second, the diffracted light beams of all divisions were diverged into plane light sources with equal area. Finally, the coefficients of high order terms were applied to the aberration correction for achieving the structured light distribution similar to that of the original Kinect stereoscopic sensor. This method can effectively utilize the features of the free-form surface to realize the design with uniform structured light distribution.
Based on the technology of binary optics, the photo mask was designed by using the curve fitting of the phase polynomials and the HOE was fabricated by using the photolithography and etching processes. Then, the optical projection path was set up to observe the light shape of the positive-one diffraction order projected by the HOE and to measure the diffraction angles and efficiencies. At last, it was compared with the DOE of the Kinect stereoscopic sensor and showed that this study could fulfill the effect of light distribution with better uniformity.
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