Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28588
標題: 番木瓜外銷貯運技術之改進
Improvement of Postharvest Technology of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Fruits for Exporting
作者: 張書榮
Chang, Shu-Jung
關鍵字: ‘Tainung No.2' papaya, Storage, vapor heat treatment;‘台農二號’番木瓜, 貯藏, 蒸熱處理
出版社: 園藝學系所
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摘要: 
‘台農二號’番木瓜近年開始拓展外銷市場,按貨輪船期的不同,貯運所需時間也不同,因此於本試驗中進一步探討番木瓜果實貯運條件對貯藏品質的影響。結果顯示‘台農二號’番木瓜在不同溫度下後熟,於1、3、6、9及12℃下貯藏42天期間沒有出現呼吸率及乙烯釋放率上升的現象,其葉綠素螢光值亦無明顯變化,在15及20℃下則出現呼吸率及乙烯釋放率的高峰,葉綠素螢光值在果實轉色的同時亦隨著快速降低。果實運輸時水平放置、果蒂朝上或果蒂朝下放置,以朝下放置者有較高的蒂腐病發生率。果實採收時不留梗比留梗者有較高的蒂腐病發生率。
蒸熱處理對3月份的果實會產生熱傷害,後熟及轉色皆受到抑制。蒸熱後降溫的水溫也影響了番木瓜果實的後熟,以0℃冰水降溫者,果皮易產生燙斑,以27℃水降溫者,腐爛率較高。蒸熱處理後之果實以15、18、21及24℃運輸之後再催熟,隨著貯運溫度上升,其後熟軟化愈快,但卻分別有44.4、100.0、30.0及100.0%的比例出現腐爛。蒸熱後再經溫湯處理,有降低腐爛發生的效果,但卻也使12月份採收之果實產生不同程度的熱傷害。以運輸時催熟的方式,在15至30℃間,隨貯運溫度愈高,後熟軟化速度愈快,轉色愈快。於30℃下約56小時接近完熟;於25℃下第84小時接近完熟;於20℃下第7天接近完熟;於15℃下第10天接近完熟。以先催熟再運輸的方式,超過33℃的催熟溫度,果實的後熟軟化逐漸受到抑制。蒸熱後再經催熟24、36及48小時後,以1℃貯運7天後尚可持續後熟,但亦有腐爛的情形出現,且12月採收之果實,仍有後熟不完全之情形。以催熟24小時之番木瓜貯運,則1、3、6、9、12及15℃貯藏7天後,果實隨著貯運溫度上升,其後熟軟化程度愈高。
在長程貯運的實驗裡,6℃以上的貯藏溫度皆無法維持果實30天後不腐爛發霉,即使貯藏在1℃下,果實成熟度愈高低溫敏感性愈低,但以電石在30℃下催熟48小時之後,果實仍有寒害症狀的發生。溫湯處理防治病害的效果上,53℃10分鐘的溫湯處理後,經過12℃貯藏至30天後仍無法避免腐爛的發生。

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vapor heat treatment on the incidences of postharvest decay and quality of ‘Tainung No.2' papaya fruit grown in Taiwan, and to improve the postharvest technology for export.
Temperature at or lower than 12℃ delayed the ripening of papaya fruit, as evidenced by the absence of respiration and ethylene production peaks and no coloring of peel. The respiration and ethylene peaks appeared later at 15℃than 20℃. During the coloring of papaya at 15℃ and 20℃, the Fv/Fm values decreased gradually. There was no difference in the quality of fruits between harvested with and without stem, but the incidence of stem-end rot was lower in stem-remained fruit after storage and ripening. As transport from the field to packing house, the fruits held reversal had higher incidence of stem-end rot than those held vertical and horizontal.
The fruits harvested in March occurred heat injury and abnormal ripening after vapor heat treatment. Hydrocooling with 1℃ cold water caused scald in peel of papaya fruit after vapor heat treatment, and with 27℃ water caused severe decay. After vapor heat treatment, the fruits were stored at 15℃, 18℃, 21℃, and 24℃, respectively. Increasing the storage temperature decreased the time of softening. The incidence of decay was higher when the fruit was held at higher temperature. Hot-water immersion could decrease the rate of decay. Complete ripening occurred after 56 hours at 30℃, 84 hours at 25℃, 7 days at 20℃, and 10 days at 15℃, respectively. Ripening temperature at or over 33℃caused abnormal ripening, as poor coloring and hard pulp. The fruits ripened at 30℃ for 24 hours were transported at 1℃, 3℃, 6℃, 9℃, 12℃, and 15℃, respectively, for 7 days and there was no significantly different in fruit quality among the transportation temperature from 3℃ to 15℃, but faster softening was occurred in higher temperature.
After the fruits were stored at or below 12℃ for 30 day, to simulate long distance transportation, off flavors, decay, and skin scald developed. Delaying storage until the fruit ripened decreased chilling susceptibility.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28588
其他識別: U0005-0606200608502100
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

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