Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28656
標題: 金煌芒果果實生理劣變及採收後生理
The physiological disorder and postharvest physiology of ''Chiin Hwang'' mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits
作者: 陳秀珠
Chen, Hsiu-Chu
關鍵字: mineral nutrient;無機養分;Ca treatment;on-tree ripening;flesh disc;噴鈣處理;樹上掛熟;果肉圓片
出版社: 園藝學系
摘要: 
第一章 ‘金煌’芒果葉片無機養分之週年變化
本試驗調查嘉義竹崎地區‘金煌’芒果無機養分之週年變化。試驗
結果顯示,葉片氮濃度之變化,在果實生長發育期間含量高,但在
果實採收後,新梢生長時(約9月2日以後),葉片中氮含量明顯下降,
並維持在一平穩的狀況;鈣濃度的變化,呈現一緩慢增加的趨勢;
葉片中鉀的含量,在花後下降,隨著果實的生長,而濃度漸增,至
果實生長後期,降至最低,而後隨著枝條的抽梢,呈現緩慢增加的
趨勢;鎂在果實發育初期,葉片中含量較高,在果實發育後期下降,
採果後亦隨著枝梢的抽長而逐漸累積;磷的變化較其他大量元素呈
現不同趨勢,在果實的初期生長,葉片中濃度呈現緩慢下降,至中
期才逐漸上升,而後呈現一緩慢上升趨勢;葉片中錳濃度的變化,
自果實發育初期,呈現逐漸下降趨勢,在試驗期間亦持續下降;鋅
的含量,在整個果實生長發育時期並沒有明顯的變化,而在枝梢抽
出時期有上升的趨勢;鐵的濃度變化在果實生長初期,葉片中含量
高,至中期以後則下降,並維持在一穩定的含量,無明顯的變動。
根據試驗資料,在開花前臨界期至盛花時期,葉片中無機養分之累
積達到一穩定的含量,為適當之樹體營養採樣分析時期。
第二章 噴鈣、遮陰降溫及提高氧氣濃度對‘金煌’芒果果實
果肉劣變之影響
本試驗利用噴施鈣肥、遮陰降溫及高氧處理來預防‘金煌’芒果果
肉劣變的發生。施用氯化鈣之處理與果實劣變關係的調查結果顯
示,在整個果實後熟期間,處理組的劣變率較對照組降低,約相差
10 %。果實內大量元素,處理組與對照組並無明顯之差異;果皮中
各元素的含量(除鉀之外)皆較內、外層果肉高;而從果梗、中段至果
頂端來看,鉀及磷呈現明顯的上升趨勢,鈣則呈現下降的趨勢,鎂
並無一定規律。在微量元素方面,果皮的含量較內、外層果肉高,
與大量元素相同;鐵及銅之含量,處理組高出對照組許多,尤以銅
的含量增加更為顯著,增加的量從3 ~ 6倍不等,鐵則小幅上升;錳
的含量則較對照組有略微下降的趨勢。從整顆果實來看,大量元素
與微量元素相同,都有由外向內遞減的趨勢,由果梗端往果頂端增
加的趨勢。結果顯示利用葉面施用鈣肥並無法增加果實中的鈣含
量,卻可降低果肉劣變的發生,但果實中微量元素,如銅及鐵有上
升的趨勢而錳有下降的趨勢,由此推測,‘金煌’芒果果實劣變的
發生可能受其他元素濃度的影響。
‘金煌’芒果果實遮陰降溫處理可降低袋中之溫度約4.7℃,但遮陰
降溫處理組的果實劣變率為76.3%,較對照組高出6.7 %;另外,高
氧處理之果實劣變率與對照組比較並無差異,皆為66.7 %。
第三章 樹上後熟與採收後催熟對果實品質之影響
本試驗調查‘金煌’芒果果實採收後催熟與人工催熟後留於樹上後
熟果實之品質。採收後利用1000倍益收催熟之果實,果肉顏色與利
用1000倍益收催熟後留於樹上後熟4天之果實比較,有較高的a值,
b值則無差異;採後催熟的果實其可溶性固物為12.1 %,在樹上後
熟4天的果實則是12.8 %,顯示在果實發育後期,果實中之碳水化
合物仍持續累積。果實硬度方面,採後催熟的果實明顯低於樹上後
熟4天的果實,且採後催熟之硬度已低於可食階段(2-4 kg/cm2 ),而
樹上後熟4天的果實,則符合可食標準(3.5 kg/cm2)。就果實之劣變
率而言,採後催熟的果實並未有劣變的情形發生,人工催熟樹上後
熟4天的果實亦只有20%,且多為很輕微的症狀。若在樹上自然後
熟果實劣變率在60 ~ 80%間,顯示對生理劣變而言,後熟的場所並
不重要,而是果實後熟速度及整齊性可能扮演重要的角色。
第四章 金煌芒果果實圓片鈣處理之變化
本試驗利用‘金煌’芒果果肉圓片探討果實內鈣與乙烯及呼吸作用
的關係。‘金煌’芒果果肉圓片的呼吸率在試驗中亦會出現高峰,
高峰在第21個小時出現,但添加鈣會抑制此現象,且隨著濃度的增
加而抑制現象更加明顯。果肉圓片的乙烯釋放量,在第15個小時出
現高峰,以250mM CaCl2處理有促進乙烯生成的效果,而500mM
及750mM的濃度則有抑制的效果。用低濃度鈣處理(<50mM CaCl2)
的果肉圓片,在第15個小時的乙烯釋放量,皆受鈣離子的刺激而上
升,呼吸速率亦同樣被激發而上升,由此可知,低濃度的鈣可幫助
乙烯的生成,並加速呼吸作用速率。而在較高濃度的氯化鈣中,
50mM ~ 200mM及500mM的氯化鈣,會抑制果肉圓片乙烯的生成,
300mM ~ 400mM的氯化鈣則有促進乙烯生成的效果。在呼吸作用方
面,200mM以下的濃度有促進呼吸作用的效果,其他濃度則是有抑
制的效果。
AVG(aminoethoxyvinylglycine)可明顯抑制‘金煌’芒果果肉圓片乙
烯的合成,無論有無鈣的處理,顯示芒果果肉圓片乙烯合成路徑亦
是經由Met豋AM觠CC(1-aminocycloropane-1-carboxylic acid)鄐A
烯,且鈣離子可增加ACC synthase的活性,刺激乙烯的生成。外加
ACC可促進‘金煌’芒果果肉圓片乙烯的生成,果肉圓片的乙烯釋
放,因鈣離子的存在而增加,此結果顯示鈣離子可能會促進EFE的
活性。‘金煌’芒果果肉圓片加入KCN或SHAM(salicylhydro-xanmic
acid)時,呼吸率會受到抑制(為對照組之63%及72%),當SHAM及
KCN同時加入抑制效果更明顯(僅剩33%),此結果顯示後熟中的果
肉圓片,其呼吸作用中的電子傳遞途徑可能存有另徑(alternative
pathway),且可能為cyanide-resistant的途徑。但在鈣離子的存在下,
無論是低濃度(50mM)或高濃度(400mM),KCN及SHAM或兩者同
時添加,則不再有影響。
綜合以上結果,鈣在低濃度時會促進乙烯的合成,而促進果肉轉色
軟化,但在高濃度之下則有相反的結果。
第五章 ‘金煌’芒果採收後果實內部氣體成分及其品質
之變化
本試驗調查‘金煌’芒果果實後熟過程中,果實乙烯及二氧化碳釋
放量以及內部氣體的變化。不論是利用1000倍益收催熟或是自然後
熟,果實的呼吸高峰皆出現於第四天,並未因益收的作用而提早出
現;而內部的二氧化碳濃度,則隨著果實後熟作用的進行,有持續
增加的趨勢,以自然後熟的果實其上升的速度較緩慢。果實乙烯釋
放量,經1000倍益收處理的果實,在第二天有第一個乙烯高峰的出
現,而第二個高峰則出現於第六天;自然後熟的果實,其並沒有更
年性果實所慣有的乙烯高峰的出現,其乙烯的變化是呈現一緩慢上
升的趨勢,且其釋放量並不高,僅1.35 nl / kg /h。果實內部的乙烯濃
度,兩者都在第四天達到高峰,但經益收處理之果實,其內部乙烯
的濃度較自然後熟果實有較高的內部乙烯濃度,且內生乙烯高峰與
果實之呼吸高峰同時出現。
‘金煌’芒果果實後熟進行時,果實內部氧氣濃度的變化亦隨著時
間的變化,而呈現下降的趨勢。經催熟的果實,其內部氧氣濃度的
下降幅度更明顯。
在果肉之L值,自然後熟之果實,呈現一較緩慢下降的趨勢,而以益
收催熟之果實在第二至四天急劇下降,此時呼吸高峰及內生乙烯的
高峰出現,而後之下降趨勢則與自然後熟果實相似。果肉之a值,在
自然後熟的果實來說,隨著時間的變化,呈現持續增加的趨勢; 益
收催熟的果實,從第二天開始急劇上升,而在第六至八天呈現平緩
的變化。果肉之b值,兩者之上升趨勢類似,但益收催熟的果實上升
的值較高。就果肉顏色而言,經催熟之果實,果肉的明度在第四天
明顯下降,表示果肉呈現較暗淡的顏色;而果肉的彩度則與自然後
熟的果實沒有較大的差異。
經催熟的果實,其果肉硬度在第0~4天呈現急速下降的趨勢,而在
第4~8天則表現緩慢下降的趨勢。自然後熟的果實果肉硬度下降的
趨勢與催熟之果實亦類似,只是下降的趨勢較緩慢,而第八天之果
肉硬度與催熟之果實差異很少,第十二天時,果肉則可能由於過熟
而呈現極度軟化狀。兩者的果肉其可溶性固形物的含量,後熟過程
中之上升趨勢相似,且差異不大,最高值皆約為15.6%。
本試驗結果顯示,果實中之氣體濃度,隨著後熟作用的進行,呈現
氧氣下降而二氧化碳上升的趨勢,而乙烯(不論外加或內生)可加速
‘金煌’芒果果實之呼吸作用速率,但果實之品質並不受影響。

Chapter 1 Annual Changes in Leaf Mineral Nutrient
Concentrations of Mango ''Chiin Hwang''The objective of this
experiment was to investigate the annual changes in mineral
nutrients of mango ''Chiin Hwang'' in Jwu-Chyi area, Chia-Yi
county, Taiwan. Results showed that nitrogen
concentration of mango leaf was high during fruit development,
but decreased significiently after harvesting and while the
young shoots started to grow (approximately after September 2)
and followed by maintaining a low but stable content.
Calcium concentration,in general, had a tendency to
increase gradually while K content of the leaf decreased
after blooming. Patassium, however, concentration increased
as fruit developing process continued and dinmished to
the lowest point at the final stage of fruit development, and
on the rise again as new shoot began to grow. Magnesium
concentration was high at the begining of the fruit
development and dropped at a later stage and accumulated to
a relatively high level with new shoot growth. Unlike other
macroelements, P concentration gradually decreased in the leaf
during the early stage of fruit development. It began to
increase from the midstage of fruit development. Mn
concentration diminished while Zn concentration maintained at a
rather constant level through out the experiment only slightly
enhanced as new shoot appeared. Fe concentration of the
leaf was high during the early fruit developing period and
gradually lowered to a stable condition and remained
unchanged. According to the experimental data, the best
sampling stage for leaf analysis is from anthesis to full
blooming when mineral nutrients accumulated to a certain
level and remained constant. Chapter 2 Effect of Ca foliar
application, temperature reduction by shading, and oxygen
concentration on fruit deterioration of ''Chiin Hwang'' mango
The objective of this experiment was to reduce fruit
deterioration on mango c.v. Chiin Hwang by using CaCl2,
reducing fruit temperature by shading, and increasing oxygen
pecentage inmango fruit. In the experiment of CaCl2 foliage
spraying, results showed that 10% decrease of fruit
deterioration was observed from the Ca treatment than
that of control. No significant differences was found
in the macroelements of mango fruits. Besides potassium,
elements content in the pericarp were higher than those of
the outer and inner portions of mesocarp. Potassium and P
increased but Ca decreased as nutrient concentration were
measured from proximal to the distal end of the mango
fruit. Magnesium had no regular pattern of changing. In
microelements, concentration in mesocarp were higher than
those in the pericarp. Iron and Cu concentrations of fruits
with Ca treatment were much higher than those of the control,
while Cu increased significantly from three to six fold but Fe
increased and Mn content dropped slightly. From the view point
of wholemango fruit, both macro- and microelements decreased
from pericarp to inner mesocarp and increased from proximal to
the distal end of fruit. The result also showed that Ca
concentration of fruit was not affected by using Ca foliar
spraying, however, Ca application could have the effect of
reducing fruit deterioration. Cupper and Fe had tendency to
increase but Mn had oppositetrend. This indicated that the
deterioration of mango fruits was affected by changing in
microelement concentration. Temperature reduction by
shading of fruit was found to be reduced 4.7℃than that of
nonshading experiment. However, rate ofdeterioration of shading
fruits was 76.3%, 6.7% higher than that of control. Rates of
fruit deterioration of both high oxygentreatment and control was
66.7%, thus no significent difference were found between
treatments Chapter 3 Effects of on-tree and off-tree
ripening on thefruit qualities of ''Chiin Hwang'' mangoThe
objectives of this study was to compare the fruit quality of
''Chiin Hwang'' mango which was ripened on the tree after 1000x
ethrel treatment with those artificially ripened after picking.
''A'' value of green-pick fruit treated with 1000x ethrel
was higher than those treated with the same concentration but
remained on the tree for 4 days. No difference was found for
''b'' value between the two treatments. The soluble solid of
green-pick, artificially ripened fruit was 12.1% while
those of on-tree fruit was 12.8%. This indicated that
carbonhydrate accumulated continuously in fruit at the
late stage of development. Firmness of green-picked,
artifically-ripened fruits were significantly lower than those
on- tree fruits. The firmness of green-pick, artifically
ripened fruit was found below edible standard (2 - 4 kg/cm2)
while those fruits remained on the tree for 4 more days met
the required standard (3.5 kg/cm2). Besides, no mesocarp
breakdown was found among the green-pick and artifically
ripened mango; those ripened on the tree had 20% slight case
of mesocarp breakdown; and fruit ripened naturally on the
tree with a rate of 60 ~ 80%. It is concluded the rate
and uniformity but not the special forms of postharvest
treatment are important factors affecting deterioration.Chapter
4 Effect of Ca Treatment on Fruit Ripening of  ''Chiin Hwang''
Mango This experiment was designed to study the relation
of Ca with ethylene production and respiration rate by
using pulp discs of mango. The respiration peak rate of
discs occurred at the 21th hour. However, Ca inhibited this
phenomenon. The higher the Ca dosage was used, the
greater was the inhibition. The amount of released ethylene
peaked at the 15th hour. The addition of 250 mM of CaCl2
enhanced ethylene biosynthesis; however, the increase of CaCl2
to 500 mM and 750 mM caused inhibition. Ethylene output and
respiration rate of the 15th hour were both stimulated by
low CaCl2 (<50 mM) treatment. The resultes showed that low Ca
concentration promoted ethylene biosynthesis and enhanced
respiration rate. On the other hand, high Caconcentration to
the level of 500 mM had deverse effects. The same thing
can be said about the very low Ca levels(50 ~ 200 mM). But Ca
in the range of 300 ~ 400 mM promoted production ofethylene in
mango discs. Ca concentration of 200 mM is the cretical
value; above which the respiration rate increase and below
which the respiration falls. AVG obviously inhibited ethylene
biosynthesis of mango c.v. Chiin-Hwang irrespective of Ca
treatment. This indicated the ethylene biosynthesis
process in discs is likely followed the usual path of Met→SAM
→ ACC→ethylene. Ca ionsaccelerated ACC synthesis activity and
therefore boosted ethylene production. Supplemental ACC also
promoted ethylene production. Ethylene release increased
along with the augmentation of Ca ion in the tissues. The
result indicated that Ca ion may enhance the activity of EFE.
The respiration rate was dropped as the KCN or SHAM was added
to the mango fruit discs. The effect was more evident when
both of KCN and SHAM wereadded together. The data reflected the
possibility of theexistance of an alternative electron transport
pathway, possibly thecyanide-resistant path, during the ripening
of the mango fruit discs. However, the presence of Ca
ion either in high amount or in low concentration would
render KCN and SHAM ineffective. To sum up, low Ca
concentration will promote ethylene biosynthesis and
therefore contribute to the softness of the mango fruit.
But at high concentration, the opposite will occur. Chapter 5
Changes of Fruit Quality and Interior Gas Composition in
Harvested ''Chiin Hwang'' Mango Endeavours were made in this
study to ascertain the relationship between fruit quality and
fruit interior gas composition. Fruit respiration peaked on
the 4th day irrespective of 1000x ethrel treatment or
natural maturation process was employed. Interior fruit CO2
concentration increased gradually as fruit approaching the
ripe state. However, the rate of CO2 increase in nature-
ripening fruits was slower than that of ethrel treated ones.
The maximum of ethylene released from mango fruit was
respresented by two period; the second day and the 6th day
after 1000x ethrel was applied. The nature-ripening mango
fruits lack the ethylene peak distinctive of the climatical
fruit, the former gave off ethylene gradually at a rate
of 1.35nl/kg/h. Both of the Ca treated and nature ripening
mango fruit yielded most ethylene per unit time on the 4th day.
The interior ethylene concentration was higher in ethrel
treated than in nature-ripening mango fruits. Timewise, the
ethylene peak and the respiration peak occurred almost
simultaneously. The changes of interior oxygen concentration
tapered off as the ripening process proceded. Moreover, the
concentration ofethylene in mature fruits dropped drastically.
L value of mango flesh receded gradually in nature-ripening
fruit but it diminished rapidly in the period of the 2nd day
to the 4th day
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28656
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