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Developmental Changes and Responses to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Mango (Mangifera indica) Fruits
|關鍵字:||Mango;芒果;Fruit development;Colletotrichum gloeosporioides;果實發育;炭疽病||出版社:||園藝學系所||引用:||Abdallah, A.Y. and J.P. Palta. 1989. Changes in biophysical and biochemical properties of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) fruit during growth and development. Acta Hort. 24:361-365. Agrios, G.N. 1978. Plant Pathology. Academic Press, New York. Aist, J.R. 1976. Papillae and related wound plugs of plant cells. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 14:145-163. Almada, R.E., M.A. Martinez, M.M. Hernandez, S.Vallejo, E.Primo-Yufera, and I. Vargas-Arispuro. 2003. Fungicidal potential of methoxylated flavones from citrus for in vitro control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, causal agent of anthracnose disease in tropical fruits. Pest. Manag Sci. 59:1245-1249. Anderson, J.L., and J.C. Walker. 1962. Histology of watermelon anthracnose. Phytopathology. 52:650-653. Anonymous. 2004. FAO Production Yearbook. Food and agricultural organization of United Nations. Rome. Anonymous. 2003. 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The most important disease responsible for losses in mango is anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. Studying the changes in mango fruit characteristics during development and after harvest and the changes in mangoes peel after invading of fungi could be good indicators for evaluating the storability and the tolerance or susceptibility to anthracnose disease. ‘Irwin' and ‘Chai' mango fruits have a typical single sigmoid growth curve. The growth and development of ‘Irwin' and ‘Chai' mangoes can be roughly divided into 3 stages. There was little increase in both fruit weight and fruit volume in the first stage and increased remarkly over the second stage. The fruit weight and volume were constant throughout the third stage. Changes in fruit length, fruit width, and fruit thickness showed a similar trend to fruit weight and fruit volume in ‘Irwin' and ‘Chai' mangoes. Activity of α-Amylase increased concomitantly to starch decreasing and sugar accumulation. Fructose was the predominant sugar in fruit flesh during growing period while sucrose increased slightly during ripening. Protein content sharply increased at the onset of ripening. The fruit harvested 118 days after full bloom could reach or even surpass the commercially acceptable eating quality. The biochemical changes in mango fruit characteristics after harvest were determined. In ‘Irwin' and ‘Chai' mangoes, TSS was gradually increased throughout the ripening. TA was highest at the start of the ripening period and decreased gradually during the subsequent 8 days. The principle soluble sugar during the ripening period was sucrose. The level of its content increased slightly as storage advanced. The percentage of fructose was lower than sucrose and its content also went down slowly during storage. The protein content increased about two-fold during ripening and maintained at the highest level when it reached to the end of storage. The susceptibility of the fruits to diseases became greater when it reached the ripening period. Increased in biochemical markers, such as TSS, total soluble sugars, α-Amylase and protein, is an important feature during ripening of mango fruit. Therefore, it might be possible that the more rapid changes in those markers during fruit ripening leading to the more susceptible to anthracnose disease in ‘Irwin' and ‘Chai' mangoes. Changes in sugar content and invertases activity in peels of mango fruit after C. gloeosporioides Penz. inoculation were investigated. There was an increase in soluble sugar level and invertase activity after C. gloeosporioides Penz. infection as fruit ripening and storage advanced. A positive correlation was found between soluble sugar level, invertase activity and the degree of anthracnose disease symptom.
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