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dc.contributorTan-Cha Leeen_US
dc.contributorZen-Hong Shuen_US
dc.contributorJenn-Wen Huangen_US
dc.contributorChun-Teh Kuoen_US
dc.contributorWen Hsin Chungen_US
dc.contributorChing-Chang Shieshen_US
dc.contributor.advisorHuey-Ling Linen_US
dc.contributor.authorChumpookam, Jenjiraen_US
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dc.description.abstract煙燻水是一種含有許多刺激植物萌芽、幼苗生長與抑制病原菌生長等物質的水溶液。本研究擬探討煙燻水對種子萌芽、幼苗生長及對真菌類病原菌的抑菌作用以及增進台農2號番木瓜採後品質之影響。分析煙燻水中的成分包含了酸類、植物所需的礦物營養、如重要的氮源銨態氮(NH4+),同時含有高量的抗真菌物質,如酚類化合物。以氣相層析儀(GC-MS)分析煙燻水的成分,可區分出30種成分,主要是醇、內酯、醛、酸、酮類、生物鹼以及酚類。在這些成份中,2(5H)-Furanone可能刺激了番木瓜種子萌芽主要成分,酚類化合物則具有抑制了真菌的生長之效果,而1H-Imidazole, 1-methyl-4-nitroso-5-phenyl則具有殺死真菌類病原菌的能力。 在發芽試驗中,低濃度的煙燻水(0.1%或0.2%,v/v)不僅有較高的發芽率,且能縮短發芽時間。推測其原因為0.1%或0.2%的煙燻水處理種子可以增加種皮滲透性,使種皮破裂、胚根伸長並加速萌發。在番木瓜種苗生長試驗中,煙燻水可提高多項生長特性,如葉綠素含量與壯苗指數。 煙燻水在PDA培養基系統下及盆植番木瓜幼苗試驗上均可以抵抗土壤真菌所引發的猝倒病,以掃描式電子顯微鏡(SEM)觀察,煙燻水對於Pythium sp. 生長形態的影響,結果顯示煙燻水抑制了Pythium sp. 之菌絲體及孢子的生長。此外,3%煙燻水會使Pythium sp. 的細胞結構受到破壞、畸形、細胞質滲漏、甚至自我分解,且菌絲生長量減少。在盆栽試驗中,煙燻水可以降低番木瓜植株猝倒病的罹病率。 果腐是番木瓜果實採後品質損失的主要原因,其中,果腐病原包含炭疽病與疫病,分別為Colletotrichum gloeosporioides與Phytophthora sp.所致病。利用煙燻水或是甲殼素,於PDA培養基系統與接種於番木瓜果實上進行試驗。若將煙燻水或甲殼素添加入培養基中,結果顯示煙燻水或甲殼素抑制了C. gloeosporioides或Phytophthora sp.的生長。而在番木瓜果實接種C. gloeosporioides或Phytophthora sp. 後,分別處理10%與20%的煙燻水、0.5%的甲殼素、0.5%的甲殼素與10%的煙燻水之混合液,並以蒸餾水作為對照組 結果顯示,10%的煙燻水、0.5%的甲殼素以及0.5%的甲殼素與10%的煙燻水之混合液的處理降低了番木瓜果實炭疽病與疫病果腐病發病率及罹病程度。其中又以0.5%的甲殼素被膜之抑菌效果最好。 果實採後品質方面,處理煙燻水、甲殼素和甲殼素與煙燻水之混合液的番木瓜,可在室溫25℃下貯藏9天。其中以處理煙燻水的番木瓜果實其呼吸率和乙烯釋放率會上升,導致番木瓜果實比其他處理組提早後熟。 以上結果顯示,煙燻水可以改善種子萌芽、幼苗生長並控制某些植物病害的發生或蔓延,此外,煙燻水可以減少化學肥料和殺菌劑的使用量,具有發展成為有機栽培和無農藥管理模式之潛力。zh_TW
dc.description.abstractSmoke-water is a chemical extract used to stimulate the germination of seed, seedling growth and inhibit disease spreading of many plant species under cultivation. The present study was initiated to understanding the effect of smoke-water on germination, growth, defense to pathogenic fungi and increased postharvest quality of papaya (Carica papaya) cv. ‘Tainung No. 2'. Smoke-water was characterized analysis. This solution was acidic, substantial amounts of plant nutrients, high level of NH4+ which was important nitrogen sources for plant growth and has a high content of antifungal activity especially phenolic compounds. The compounds of smoke-water were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 30 compounds were identified, which were mainly alcohols, lactones, aldehydes, acid, ketones, alkaloid and hydroxybenzenes. Among the identified compounds, have 3 types of compounds which considerable in this study, theirs were 2(5H)-Furanone that may stimulate the germination of papaya seeds, phenolic compounds that may inhibited the growth of several fungi and 1H-Imidazole,1-methyl-4-nitroso-5-phenyl- that ability to inhibit and antifungal pathogens. In the germination experiments, low concentrations of smoke-water (0.1% or 0.2%, v/v) not only promoted the maximum rate of germination but also shortened the germination time. Analysis of longitudinal sections of seeds treated with smoke-water concentrations of 0.1% or 0.2% v/v suggested that smoke-water could overcome water impermeability barriers, since it stimulated the seed coat to rupture and allowed the radical to elongate and emerge faster. In the growth experiments, smoke-water promoted multiple growth attributes, such as chlorophyll content and seedling vigor index, at all concentrations in papaya seedling production. Smoke-water was tested in vitro and in vivo for efficacy against damping-off caused by a soil borne fungi and investigate the effect of smoke-water on the morphology of Pythium sp. in scanning electron microscopy observation (SEM). Smoke-water inhibited the mycelia growth and oospore production of Pythium sp. Furthermore, after 3% smoke-water spray application, the morphology of Pythium sp. revealed loss of structural integrity, abnormal degradation, deformation, autolysis, cytoplasmic leakage and further hyphal slimming. In pot experiments, the percentage of papaya plants showing symptoms of damping-off was reduced by all concentration of smoke-water treatments. Fruit rots diseases are the major cause for the postharvest loss of papaya fruit. The control of anthracnose and Phytophthora fruit rots disease, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes and Phytophthora sp., respectively, by using smoke-water or chitosan tested in the vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies, using water agar amended with smoke-water or chitosan. The results showed that smoke-water or chitosan inhibited fungal growth of C. gloeosporioides or Phytophthora sp. In vivo studies, papaya fruits were inoculated with C. gloeosporioides or Phytophthora sp. and treated with 10% smoke-water, 20% smoke-water, 0.5% chitosan, a combination of 0.5% chitosan and 10% smoke-water, or distilled water (control), The results suggested that the use of 10% smoke-water, 0.5% chitosan or a combination of 0.5% chitosan and 10% smoke-water reduce the lesion diameter and disease incidence of anthracnose and Phytophthora fruit rots disease on papaya fruits. However, 0.5% chitosan coating was more effective among treatments. Postharvest quality, papaya fruits were treated with smoke-water, chitosan, and a combination of chitosan and smoke then were stored at the ambient temperature of 25 ◦C for 9 days. Papaya fruits coated with smoke-water increased the rates of respiration and ethylene production, and caused the papaya to ripen faster than the other treatments. This suggests that smoke-water show promising results for improving seed germination, seedling growth and controlling some plant disease. In addition, smoke-water can possibly economize the use of commercial chemical fertilizers, fungicide, making it a feasible technology for organic farming and non-chemical pesticide management model.en_US
dc.description.tableofcontentsContents Page Chinese Summary i English Summary iii Contents v List of Tables vii List of Figures ix Introduction 1 Review of literature 5 Chapter I Characterization and identification of smoke-water 24 Chinese abstract Abstract 24 25 Introduction 26 Materials and methods 27 Results 28 Discussion 34 Chapter II Effect of smoke-water on seed germination and growth parameter of papaya seedling cv. Tainung No. 2 36 Chinese abstract Abstract 36 37 Introduction 38 Materials and methods 40 Results 45 Discussion 57 Chapter III Using smoke-water to control papaya seedling damping-off disease Chinese abstract 60 60 Abstract 61 Introduction 62 Materials and methods 65 Results 70 Discussion 81 Chapter IV Control of anthracnose and fruit rots diseases on papaya fruits by using smoke-water or chitosan 85 Chinese abstract Abstract 85 86 Introduction 87 Materials and methods 89 Results 93 Discussion 116 Chapter V Postharvest quality of papaya fruits as affected by smoke-water or chitosan coatings 119 Chinese abstract Abstract 119 120 Introduction 121 Materials and methods 123 Results 127 Discussion 146 Conclusion 150 References 151en_US
dc.subjectseed germinationen_US
dc.subjectseedling growthen_US
dc.subjectdamping-off diseaseen_US
dc.subjectfruit rotsen_US
dc.subjectpostharvest qualityen_US
dc.titleEffects of Smoke-water on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, Antifungal Activities and Postharvest Fruit Quality of Papaya (Carica papaya cv. Tainung No. 2)en_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
item.fulltextno fulltext-
item.openairetypeThesis and Dissertation-
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