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Mixing Enhancement of Fluids in Rotating Microfluidics with a Circular Chamber
Chiu, Huan- Chao
|關鍵字:||離心驅動;centrifuge-driven;微混合器;科氏力;渦旋;混合效率;micromixer;Coriolis force;mixing efficiency||出版社:||機械工程學系所||引用:||1. Ahmed, D., Mao, X., Juluri B. K., and Huang T. J., “A Fast Microfluidic Mixer Based on Acoustically Driven Sidewall-Trapped Microbubbles,” Microfluid Nanofluid, Vol. 7, 2009, pp. 727-737. 2. Atencia, J., and Beebe, D. J., “An Oscillating Ferromagnetic Micropump Utilizing Centrifugal Force,” Proceedings of 7th International Conference on μTAS 2003, eds. Jensen, K. F., and Harrison, D. J., Northrup, MA, Oct. 5-9, 2003, pp. 883-886. 3. Auroux, P. A, Iossifidis, D., Reyes, D. R., Iossifidis, D., and Manz, A.,’’Micro Total Analysis System: 2. Analytical Standard Operation and Application,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 74, No. 12, 2002, pp. 2637-2652. 4. Branebjerg, J., Gravesen, P., Krog, J. P., and Nielsen, C. R., “Fast Mixing by Lamination,” Proceedings of the IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), San Diego, CA, 1996, pp. 441-446. 5. 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J., “Cell Infection within a Microfluidic Device Using Virus Gradient,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol. 98, No, 2-3, 2004, pp. 347-355. 51. Wang, H., Iovenitti, P., Harvey, E., and Masood, S., “Optimizing Layout of Obstacles for Enhanced Mixing in Microchannel,” Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 11, No5 2002, pp. 662-667. 52. Wang, Y., Zhe, J., Chung, B. T. F., and Dutta, P., “A Rapid Magnetic Particle Driven Micromixer,” Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, Vol. 4, No. 5, 2008, pp. 375-389. 53. Wu, Z. M., and Li, D. Q. “Micromixing Using Induced-Charge Electrokinetic Flow,” Electrochimica. Acta, Vol.53, 2008, pp. 5827-5835. 54. Xia, H. M., Wan, S. Y. M., Shu, C., and Chew, Y. T., "Chaotic Micromixers Using Two-Layer Crossing Channels to Exhibit Fast Mixing at Low Reynolds Numbers," Lab on a Chip, Vol. 5, No. 7, 2005, pp. 748-755. 55. Yaralioglu, G. G., Wygant, I. O., Marentis, T. C., and Khuri-Yakub, B. T., “Ultrasonic Mixing in Microfluidic Channels Using Integrated Transducers,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 76, No. 13, 2004, pp. 3694-3698. 56. Vivek, V., and Kim, E. S., “Novel Acoustic-Wave Micromixer,” Proceedings of the IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), Miyazaki, Japan, 2000, pp. 668-673. 57. 陳俊堯，旋轉碟片上微混合器之影像定位及可視化實驗，碩士論文，國立中興大學，2007。||摘要:||
本研究以數值模擬方法配合可視化實驗，探討旋轉碟片上直管流道具圓形混合槽的混合現象。旋轉微混合器主要包括兩個儲存槽，Y形混合流道及置於直管流道間的圓形槽，所有流道寬度均為300 μm。兩種不同濃度的流體因離心力驅動流出儲存槽，進入Y形流道並於圓形槽加強混合。數值模擬主要針對流道深度為300 μm，圓形槽半徑為750 μm的幾何構形，利用有限體積法分析其流場與濃度場在不同轉速的變化並與實驗比較。實驗則於直徑10 cm的透明壓克力碟片製作具圓形槽的微混合器，利用淺黃色三氯化鐵與無色硫氰化氨兩種水溶液為測試流體，其混合反應產生深紅色硫氰酸鐵的顏色深淺可作為混合程度的量化指標，並以同步定位取像技術拍攝混合現象的影像。
模擬結果顯示離心式直管混合器，因旋轉產生的柯氏力使兩流體界面翻轉、摺疊，其混合效率較壓力驅動直管混合器顯著提升26–44%，但隨轉速提高快速下降，在較高轉速下則隨轉速平緩降低。本研究在直管流道間設置類似胃形的圓形混合槽，局部增加此區域寬度，可增強科氏力的效應與橫向對流，並在圓形槽形成三維渦旋。由數值模擬與實驗分析皆顯示具圓形槽離心式混合器在低轉速範圍(Ω<420 rpm)以擴散機制主導混合現象，混合效率隨轉速提高而下降;超過此轉速範圍，混合效率則呈現隨轉速提高而增加的趨勢，改善離心式純直管流道構形的設計。模擬結果發現在超過擴散主導的轉速範圍，混合效率隨逆時針轉速升高至約800 rpm達到峰值後微幅下降而後升高，於1200 rpm時可達到92.3%，接近完全混合狀態。順時針旋轉時，混合效率則隨轉速緩步升高，但略小於逆時針旋轉。可視化實驗亦發現，隨著轉速增加在圓形槽發展出複雜的三維渦旋，混合界面有翻轉、纏繞、摺疊的效果，顯著增加混合效益。實驗量測的混合效率，隨轉速變化的趨勢與數值模擬的結果相近，平均差異約13%。混合效率在低轉速範圍隨轉速增加而下降，在較高轉速下則隨轉速增加而升高，與旋轉方向無關。
Mixing enhancement of two fluids in rotating microchannels with a circular chamber has been investigated numerically using the finite volume scheme along with flow visualization experiments. The sample fluids were driven by the centrifugal force and brought in contact at the Y-junction, and then the mixing flow moved through a straight channel with a circular chamber where the main course of mixing took place. All of the flow channels had the same width of 300 μm. The simulations were mainly focused on the cases with a chamber radius of 750 μm with which the experiments were carried out for comparison in the rotational speeds ranging from 300 to 1200 rpm. For clear visualization of the mixing phenomena, pale-yellow ferric chloride and colorless ammonium thiocyanate solutions were used for the sample fluids. The reaction between the two mixed fluids would turn blood-red ferric thiocyanate whose intensity was quantified as the index of mixing efficiency for the present study.
For flow in the centrifuge-driven straight microchannel, it is found that the Coriolis force causes folding and flipping of the interface between the fluids, with the mixing efficiency significantly exceeding that of pressure-driven straight microchannel, but having a slightly decreasing trend with an increase of rotational speed in the higher speed range. By adding the circular chamber to the rotating microchannels in the present study, the mixing enhancement is found remarkably helpful in the higher speed range. The simulations indicate that Coriolis effects are more strengthened in the circular chamber producing stronger traverse advection and creating three-dimensional vortices at high rotational speeds. Both of the simulations and the flow visualization demonstrate that the mixing efficiency displays an increasing trend beyond the lower rotational speed range (approximately less than 420 rpm), where the diffusion dominates the mixing and the mixing efficiency falls with increasing rotational speed, improving the straight-microchannel case. In the higher speed range, the Coriolis-induced vortices are also observed in the visualization experiments to grow in strength with increasing rotational speed and to develop into complex three-dimensional vortices in the circular chamber, causing folding and tangling of the interface and producing significant mixing enhancement. The simulations reveal that the mixing efficiency reaches a peak as the counter-clockwise rotational speed increases to 800 rpm, and then it descends slightly and increases again with an increase of the speed. It attains a nearly complete mixing (92.3%) at the channel exit for 1200 rpm. For the clockwise rotating simulations, the mixing efficiency shows progressive increase with increasing rotational speed in the higher speed range, but slightly less than that for the counter-clockwise rotating case.
The numerical simulations were also performed to analyze the effects of the binary diffusivity and the microfluidic geometry including the depth of the channel and the radius of the circular chamber. It is found that the mixing efficiency in general increases with increasing aspect ratio (AR = depth/width) in the range AR = 0.33-1.33 for the advection dominated higher rotational speed regime. Nevertheless, due to the fact that the flow velocity increases with increasing the channel depth, the mixing efficiency may decrease in the higher rotational speed regime as a compromise between the increase of the advection and the decrease of the residence time for mixing. The present simulations show that the channel with AR=1 can achieve the larger mixing efficiency with a higher rotational speed regime. It is also found that the size of the circular chamber has an impact on the mixing efficiency with a general trend that larger diameter is better. The one with a radius of 750 μm, however, appears to enhance the mixing more effectively than those with a larger or smaller diameter.
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