Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28824
標題: 長實金柑(Fortunella margarita Swingle) 果實發育及遮光與葉果比對其果實品質之影響
Studies on Fruit Development and Effects of Shading and Leaf-to-Fruit Ratios on Fruit Quality of Oval Kumquat (Fortunella margarita Swingle)
作者: 黎廷允
Le, Doan-Dinh
關鍵字: Oval Kumquat;長實金柑;Shading;Leaf-to-Fruit Ratios;遮光;葉果比
出版社: 園藝學系所
引用: Reference Agusti, M., A. Martinez-Fuentes, and C. Mesejo. 2002. Citrus fruit quality. Physiological basis and techniques of improvement. Agrociencia. 6(2): 1-16. Albetini, M. V., E. Carcouet, O. Pailly, C. Gambotti, F. Luro, and L. Berti. 2006. Changes in organic acids and sugars during early stages of development of acidic and acidless citrus fruit. J. Agri. Food Chem. 54: 8335-8339. Avidan, A. and I. Klein. 1994. Physiological disorders in loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica Lindl.). Institute of Horticulture, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250 (in Israel). Blumwald, E. 2005. Physiological and biochemical determinants of sugar and acid content in citrus fruits and citrus fruit proteomics. Citrus research board annual report. http://www.citrusresearch.com/documents/358b. Chacko, E. K., Y. T. N. Reddy, and T. V. Ananthanarayanan. 1982. Studies on the relationship between leaf number and area and fruit development in mango (Mangifera indica L.). J. Hort. Sci. 57(4): 483-492. Chaney, W. R. and T. T. Kozlowski. 1971. Water transport in relation to expansion and contraction of leaves and fruit of Calamondin orange. J. Hort. Sci. 46:71-81. Chen, K., G. Hu, and F. Lenz. 1998. Apple yield and quality as affected by training and shading. Acta Hort. 466: 53-58. Citrus production 2003. A manual for Asian farmers. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center Published, Taipei, Taiwan. Cohen, A. and A. Goell. 1988. Fruit growth and dry matter accumulation in grapefruit during periods of water withholding and after reirrigation. J. Plant Physiol. 15: 633-639. Cohen, S., E. Raveh, Y. Li, A. Garava, and E. Goldschmidt. 2005. Physiologycal responses of leaves, tree growth and fruit yield of grapefruit tree under reflective shade screens. Scientia Hort. 107: 25-35. Cohen, S., S. Moreshet, L. Guillou, and M. Cohen. 1997. Response of citrus trees to modified radiation regime in semi-arid conditions. J. Exp. Bot. 48 (306): 35-44. Cooper, W. C., A. Peynado, J. R. Furr, R. H. Hilgeman, G. A. Cahoon, and S. B. Boswell. 1963. Tree growth and fruit quality of Valencia oranges in relation to climatic. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 82: 180-193. Corelli-Grappadelli, L. and A. N. Lankso. 2004. Fruit development in deciduous tree crops as affected by physiological factors and environmental conditions. Acta Hort. 636: 426-441. Crisosto, C. H., F. G. Mitchell, and S. Johnson. 1995. Factors in flesh market stone fruit quality. Postharvest News and Information. 6(2): 217-221. Delwiche, M. and R. A. Baumgardner. 1985. Ground color as a peach maturity index. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 110(1): 53-57. Dukas, R. and R. J. Duan. 2001. Effects of larval competition on survival and growth in Mediterranean fruit flies. Ecol. Entomol. 26: 587-593. Eckardt, N. A. 2002. Abscisic acid biosynthesis gene underscores the complexity of sugar, stress, and hormone interactions. Plant Cell. 14: 2645-2649. El-Gizawy, A. M., H. M. Gomaa, K. M. El-Habbasha, and S. S. Mohamed. 1992. Effect of different shading levels on tomato plants. 1. Growth, flowering and chemical composition. Acta Hort. 323: 341-348. El-Gizawy, A. M., M. M. F. Abdallah, H. M. Gomaa, and S. S. Mohamed. 1992. Effect of different shading levels on tomato plants. 2. Yield and fruit quality. Acta Hort. 323: 349-354. Erickson, L. C. 1968. The general physiology of citrus. Chapter 2. Fruits and Fruit Processing. Ferguson, I. B. and C. B. Watkins. 1992. Crop load affects mineral concentration and incidence of bitter pit in ‘Cox's orange pippin' apple fruit. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 117: 373-376. Ferree, D. C. and G. A. Cahoon. 1987. Influence of leaf to fruit ratios and nutrient sprays on fruiting, mineral elements, and carbohydrates of apple trees. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 112(3): 445-449. Fishler, M., Eliezer E. Goldschmidt, and Shaul P. Monselise. 1983. Leaf area and fruit size on girdled grapefruit branches. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 108(2): 218-221. Forshey, C. G. 1986. Chemical fruit thinning of apples. Newyork's Food and Life Sciences Bulletin. 116. Francis, F. J. 1980. Color quality evaluaton of horticultural crops. Hort. Science. 15(1): 58-59. Gao, Y. and G. A. Cahoon. 1994. Cluster shading effects on fruit quality, fruit skin color, and anthocyanin content and composition in Reliance. Dep. Hort. 33(4): 205-209. Garcia-Luis, A., F. Fornes, and J. L. Guardiola. 1986. Effects of gibberellin A3 and cytokinins on natural and post-harvest, ethylene-induced pigmentation of Satsuma mandarin peel. Physiol. Planta. 68(2): 271-274. Garcia-Luis, A., M. E. M. Oliveira, Y. Bordon, D. L. Siqueira, S. Tominaga and J. L. Guardiola. 2002. Dry matter accumulation in Citrus fruit is not limited by transport capacity of the pedicel. Annals of Botany 90: 755-764. Genard, M. and C. Bruchou. 1992. Multivariate analysis of within-tree factors accounting for the variation of peach fruit quality. Scientia Hort. 52: 37-51. Germana, C., A. Continella, and E. Tribulato. 2001. Bio-agronomic effects of net shading on Primosole mandarin. Acta Hort. 559: 293-300. Germana, C., A. Continella, and E. Tribulato. 2003. Net shading influence on floral induction on citrus trees. Acta Hort. 614: 527-533. Germana, C., A. Continella, and E. Tribulato. 2004. Relationship between photosynthesis and respiration in grapefruit and kumquat leaves. Acta Hort. 632: 105-110. Goldschmidt, E. E. and A. Golomb. 1982. The carbohydrate balance of alternate-bearing citrus trees and the significance of reserves for flowering and fruiting. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 107:206-208. Goldschmidt, E. E. and S. K. Eilati. 1970. Gibberellin-treated Shamouti oranges: Effects on coloration and translocation within peel of fruits attached to or detached from the tree. Bot. Gaz. 131(2): 116-122. Guardiola, J. L. and A. Garcia-Luis. 2000. Increasing fruit size in citrus. Thinning and stimulation of fruit growth. Plant Growth Regul. 31: 121-132. Hansen, P. 1980. Crop load and nutrient translocation. Acta Hort. 92: 201-212. Hirai, M. and I. Ueno. 1977. Development of citrus fruits: Fruit development and enzymatic changes in juice vesicle tissue. Plant Cell Physiol. 18(4): 791-799. Hudina, M. and F. Stampar. 2004. Effect of climatic and soil conditions on sugars and organic acids content of pear fruits (Pyrus communis L.) cvs. Williams and Conference. Acta Hort. 636: 527-532. Hume, H. H. 1996. Botany of citrus fruits and their relatives. Citrus Fruits: 10-27. Hume, H. H. 1966. Kumquats. Citrus Fruits: 90-95. Ikisan. 2000. Citrus, factors influencing fruit quality http://www.ikisan.com/links/ap_citrus. Ingels, C., P. M. Geisel, C. L. Unruh, and P. M. Lawson. 2002. Fruit trees: thinning young fruit. Iwagaki, I. 1997. Citrus Production in Japan: New Trends in Technology. Jackson, J. E. and J. W. Palmer. 1977. Effects of shade on the growth and cropping of apple trees. I. Experimental details and effects on vegetative growth. J. Hort. Sci. 52: 245-252. Jackson, J. E. and J. W. Palmer. 1977. Effects of shade on the growth and cropping of apple trees. II. Effects on components of yield. J. Hort. Sci. 52: 253-266. Jackson, J. E., J. W. Palmer, M. A. Perring, and R. O. Sharples. 1977. Effects of shade on the growth and cropping of apple trees. III. Effects on fruit growth, chemical composition and quality at harvest and after storage. J. Hort. Sci. 52: 267-282. Jeong, S. T., N. Goto-Yamamoto, S. Kobayashi, and M. Esaka. 2004. Effects of plant hormones and shading on the accumulation of anthocyanins and the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in grape berry skins. Plant Sci. 167: 242-252. Jifon, J. L. and J. P. Syvertsen. 2001. Effects of moderate shade on Citrus leaf gas exchange, fruit yield and quality. Proc. Flo. State Hortic. Soc. 114: 177-181. Johnson, D. S. 1992. The effect of flower and fruit thinning on the firmness of Cox's orange pippin apples at harvest and after storage. J. Hort. Sci. 67(1): 95-101. Kale, P. N. and P. G. Adsule. 1995. Citrus. Handbook Fruit Sci. Technol.: 39-66. Kappel, F. and J. A. Flore. 1983. Effect of shade on photosynthesis, specific leaf weight, leaf chlorophyll content, and morphology of young peach trees. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 108(4): 541-544. Krezdorn, A. H. 1972. Effect of growth regulators on set and development of citrus fruit. Acta Hort. 34. Lakso, A. N., G. R. Corelli, J. Barnard, and M. C. Goffinet. 1995. An expolinear model of the growth pattern of apple fruit. J. Hort. Sci. 70:389-394. Lang, A. and R. K. Volz. 1993. Leaf area, xylem cycling and Ca status in apples. Acta Hort. 343: 89-91. Lechaudel, M., J. Joas, Y. Caro, M. Genard, and M. Jannoyer. 2005. Leaf:fruit ratio and irrigation supply affect seasonal changes in minerals, organic acids and sugars of mango fruit. J. Sci. Food and Agri. 85: 251-260. Lechaudel, M., M. Genard, F. Lescourret, L. Urban, and M. Jannoyer. 2002. Leaf-to-fruit ratio affects water and dry-matter content of mango fruit. J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 77 (6): 773-777. Lechaudel, M., M. Jannoyer, and M. Genard. 2004. Effects of the leaf:fruit ratio on growth and partitioning of water and dry matter in mango fruit. Acta Hort. 645: 429-434. Looney, N. E., R. L. Granger, C. L. Chu, L. N. Mander, and R. P. Pharis. 1992. Influences of gibberellins A4, A4+7 and A4 + ISO-A7 on apple fruit quality and tree productivity. II. Other effects on fruit quality and importance of fruit postion within the tree canopy. J. Hort. Sci. 67:841-847. Manner, H. I., R. S. Buker, V. E. Smith, D. Ward, and C. R. Elevitch. 2006. Citrus (citrus) and Fortunella (kumquat). Marini, R. P., D. Sowers, and M. C. Marini. 1991. Peach fruit quality is affected by shade during final swell of fruit growth. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 116(3): 383-389. Medina, C. L., R. P. Souza, E. C. Machado, R. V. Ribeiro, and J. A. B. Silva. 2002. Photosynthetic response of citrus grown under reflective aluminized polypropylene shading nets. Scientina Hort. 96: 115-125. Morrison, J. C. and A. C. Noble. 1990. The effects of leaf and cluster shading on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and on fruit and wine sensory properties. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 41: 193-200. Morton, J. F. and F. L. Miami. 1987. Fruits of warm climates: 182-185. Mowat, A. D. 1992. Managing persimmon quality. HortResearch Publication: 5-6. Patten, K. D. and E. L. Proebsting. 1986. Effect of different artificial shading times and natural light intensities on the fruit quality of Bing sweet cherry. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 111(3): 360-363. Pomper, K. W., D. R. Layne, and S. C. Jones. 2002. Incident irradiance and cupric hydroxide container treatment effects on early growth and development of container-grown pawpaw seedlings. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 127(1): 13-19. Raveh, E., S. Cohen, T. Raz, A. Grava, and E. Goldschmidt. 2003. Increased growth of young citrus trees under reduced radiation load in semi-arid climate. J. Exp. Bot. 54 (381): 365-373. Rossetto, M. R. M., E. Purgatto, and B. R. Cordenunsi. 2003. Effects of gibberellic acid on sucrose accumulation and sucrose biosynthesizing enzymes activity during banana ripening. Plant Growth Regula. 41(3): 207-214. Ruan, Y. L. 1993. Fruit set, young fruit and leaf growth of Citrus Unshiu in relation to assimilate supply. Scientia Hort. 53 (1993): 99-107. Schechter, I. and J. T. A. Proctor. 1994. Apple fruit removal and limb girdling affect fruit and leaf characteristics. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 119(2): 157-162. Simmons, S. L., P. J. Hofman, A. W. Whiley, and S. E. Hetherington. 1998. Effects of leaf:fruit ratios on fruit growth, mineral concentration and quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kensington Pride. J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 73: 367-374. Souty, M., M. Genard, M. Reich and G. Albagnac. 1999. Effect of assimilate supply on peach fruit maturation and quality. Can. J. Plant Sci. 79: 259-268. Storey, R. and M. T. Treeby. 1999. Short and long-term growth of Navel orange fruit. J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 74(4): 464-471. Storey, R. and M. T. Treeby. 2000. Seasonal changes in nutrient concentrations of Navel orange fruit. Scientia Hort. 84: 67-82. Stover, E. and F. Davies. 2001. Gibberellic acid to enhance juice yield and late-season quality of processing oranges. University of Florida. Tao, J., S. Zhang, X. An, and Z. Zhao. 2003. Effects of light on carotenoid biosynthesis and color formation of citrus fruit peel. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 14(11): 1833-1836. Terblanche, E. 1999. Effect of temperature on the color of citrus during degreening. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. Paper No. 996120. Tomer, E., I. Zipori, M. Goren, S. Shooker, M. Ripa, and Y. Foux. 2001. Delaying the ripening of Mauritius litchi fruit. Acta Hort. 558: 215-218. Volz, R. K., I. B. Ferguson, J. H. Bowen, and C. B. Watkings. 1993. Crop load effects on fruit mineral nutrition maturity, fruiting and tree growth of Cox's Orange Pippin apple. J. Hort. Sci. 68: 127-137. Watson, R., C. J. Wright, T. McBurney, A. J. Taylor, and R. S. T. Linforth. 2002. Influence of harvest date and lightnintegral on the development of strawberry flavour compounds. J. Exp. Bot. 53 (377): 2121-2129. Whiting, M. D., D. Ophardt, and J. R. Mcferson. 2006. Chemical blossom thinners vary in their effect on sweet cherry fruit set, yield, fruit quality and crop value. Hort. Technol. 16(1): 66-71. Yakushiji, H., K. Morinaga, and S. Ono. 1997. Effect of different shading times on the fruit quality of ‘Fuju' Japanese persimmon (Diospyros Kaki L.). Acta Hort. 436: 165-170. Yeshitela, T., P. J. Robbertse, and J. Fivas. 2004. Effect of fruit thinning on Sensation mango (Mangifera Indica) trees with respect to fruit quality, quantity and tree phenology. Exp. Agric. 40: 433-444. Yuan, R., F. alferez, I. Kostenyuk, S. Singh, J. P. Syvestsen, and J. K. Burns. 2005. Partial defoliation can decrease average leaf size but has little effect on orange tree growth, fruit yield and juice quality. HortScience 40(7): 2011-2015.
摘要: 
摘要
長實金柑屬於芸香科酸橙亞科金柑屬之小型果果樹。然而有關長實金柑之研究文獻相當匱乏,為了探討長實金柑開花到採收之生理特性,以及遮光與疏果對品質的影響,從2006到2007年間在臺中縣霧峰鄉之國立中興大學葡萄中心進行三個試驗;試驗均採用3年生之長實金柑植株。
試驗一為果實取自六株長實金柑樹,分別於滿花後20、30、40、50、60、70、80、90、100及109日採樣,並測量果寬、果長、果實體積以及果實內容物部分,包括總可溶性固形物 (TSS) 及果汁可滴定酸 (TA)。結果顯示果實直徑及長度從滿花後20到40日迅速增加,40到100日緩慢增加,在採收前10日幾乎不再增加。而果實重量及體積從滿花後20到100日呈規律地增加,然後些微地增加直到成熟期。在果實成熟前10日觀察到果汁TSS上升,而到果實成熟時,幾乎不再增加。果汁TA含量直到滿花後60日之早期發育階段上升,並隨果實成熟而下降。
另外二個試驗也隨著試驗一同時進行,即遮光與葉果比試驗對果實品質之影響。將6株長實金柑置於簡易遮光隧道設施以測定遮光對果實品質的影響。從滿花後第40日始覆蓋遮光網(遮光率50%)至果實成熟期。結果顯示有遮光處理之果實大小及果重均高於對照組 (果寬增加2.44%,果長增加1.85%,體積增加5.86%及果重增加6.52%)。但是遮光處理使果汁之TSS減少,果皮之TSS及糖酸比雖無顯著性差異,但遮光處理會使果實著色變差。
試驗三為葉果比對長實金柑果實品質之影響。選取24株長實金柑樹並在花後1個月疏果,調整葉果比為5、10、15及20。結果指出葉果比為10者比5者,其果重多出5.52%及糖度高出0.38 oBrix。雖然葉果比15者與10者相比,果重顯著性多出4.19%,但其TSS含量並無顯著性差異。增加葉果比至20者並與15者比較,其重量及TSS並無顯著性差異,但與葉果比10者有顯著性差異 (即重量多出6.6%及糖度高出0.22 oBrix)。增加葉果比至20時會使果皮產生暗紅及黃色。

Abstract
Kumquat (Fortunella Swingle) is a small fruit-bearing tree in the genus Fortunella, family Rutaceae and subfamily Aurantoideae. Although kumquat was discovered for long time ago, related studies on kumquat are still limited. In order to investigate the biological characteristics of oval kumquat fruit from blooming to fruit ripe, and effects of the shading and fruit thinning on its quality, three dependently experiments were carried out at the Viticulture Research Station of National Chung Hsing University (NCHU), Wufeng, Taichung, Taiwan in 2006-2007. Three-years-old oval kumquat (Fortunella margarita Swingle) trees were used in these experiments.
In the first experiment, fruits of six trees were harvested at different developmental stages 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 and 109 days after full bloom, and the fruit width, fruit length, fruit weight, fruit volume, component parts of fruit, total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acid (TA) in juice and in whole fruit (fruit ripe) were measured. The developments of fruit and component parts in fruit were described by growth curves. The results showed that the fruit width and fruit length rapidly increased in early stage to 40 days and slowly increased to 100 days after full bloom, and then seem to no increase in 10 days before fruit ripe. Fruit weight and volume regularly increased from 20 to 100 days after full bloom then slightly increased until fruit ripe. An increase of TSS in juice was observed to about 10 days before fruit ripe, and then hardly increased during fruit ripe, whereas TA content of juice only increased in the early stage of fruit development until approximately 60 days after full bloom, and then decreased until fruit ripe.
Simultaneously with the first experiment, two other experiments were carried out to test the effects of shading and leaf-to-fruit ratios on the quality of kumquat fruits. Sixteen oval kumquat trees with a tunnel form temporary nethouse were used to determine the effects of shading on fruit quality. Trees were covered with nets (50 % shading) from the 40th day after full bloom until fruit ripe. Results indicated that fruit size and fruit weight were higher (2.44 % in width, 1.85 % in height, 5.86 % in volume and 6.52 % in weight) in shaded treatments compared to control trees. TSS in fruit juice was decreased by shading, but there was not significantly different in TSS of peel and the ratio of TSS to acidity. The color of fruits was decreased by shading.
For experiment 3, the effect of leaf-to-fruit ratios on kumquat fruits quality was tested. Twenty-four kumquat trees were selected and fruit thinning was conducted to provide 5, 10, 15 and 20 leaves per fruit of treatments. The results indicated that increasing the leaf-to-fruit ratio to 10 resulted in significantly 5.52 % heavier fruit and 0.38 oBrix higher compared to 5 leaves per fruit. Although increasing the leaf-to-fruit ratio to 15 resulted in significantly 4.19 % heavier fruit, there was not significantly different in TSS compared to 10 leaves per fruit. Increasing the leaf-to-fruit ratio to 20, there was not significantly difference in fruit weight and TSS compared to 15 leaves per fruit, but the fruit weight and TSS were significantly higher than the group of 10 leaves per fruit treatment (6.6 % and 0.22 oBrix, respectively). Increasing leaf-to-fruit ratio to 20 resulted in a darker red and yellow color of the fruit skin. It is clear that using fruit thinning with 15-20 leaves per fruit are feasible strategies to improve kumquat production.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28824
其他識別: U0005-1307200716345000
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

Show full item record
 

Google ScholarTM

Check


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.