Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28863
標題: 熱處理及氣變包裝對‘台農二號’番木瓜果實採後品質及炭疽病之影響
Effect of Heat Treatment and Modified Atmosphere Package on the Quality and Anthracnose of 'Tainung No.2' Papaya Fruit
作者: 吳國政
Wu, Guo-Jheng
關鍵字: ‘Tainung No.2' papaya;‘台農二號’番木瓜;heat treatment;modified atmosphere package;熱處理;氣變包裝
出版社: 園藝學系所
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摘要: 
炭疽病為番木瓜果實最嚴重的採後病害之一,通常會在後熟貯運期間產生病徵,並對果實品質造成嚴重傷害,傳統以化學殺菌劑即可達到有效之控制,但因環境殘留、食用安全性、抗藥性等因素,已有部份化學藥劑被禁止施用或將停止應用,應當另尋其他防治方式替代。另一方面,由於番木瓜貯藏壽命並不長,目前仍以低溫貯藏方式來延長貯藏壽命,如此將使得成本大幅增加。因此本試驗將針對‘台農二號’番木瓜果實進行短時間之溫湯處理,進一步探討提高溫度與減少溫湯處理時間對炭疽病菌之影響、果實於不同時期對熱處理之反應,以及與現行檢疫處理綜合處理,並評估檢疫處理前應用溫湯處理之可行性。另外探討不同處理對番木瓜果實於常溫貯藏時品質之影響,以延長番木瓜果實於常溫時之貯藏壽命。

55℃、57℃、59℃溫湯處理,處理時間在兩分鐘以內即可完全抑制炭疽病菌菌絲生長;61℃至67℃溫湯處理,處理40秒內可完全抑制;69℃溫湯處理20秒內可完全抑制其菌絲生長。番木瓜果實接種炭疽病菌後再行溫湯處理,結果顯示溫湯處理在不傷害果實之情形下,可有效控制病徵出現,但溫度較低之月份處理仍會對果實造成傷害。6、8、9月果實處理57℃溫湯1.5分鐘其葉綠素螢光參數Fv/Fm仍在0.400以上,其餘月份處理後皆低於0.400,可能會對果實果皮轉色會產生障礙。溫湯處理加蒸熱處理綜合應用會加劇對果實之傷害,但在不同月份,其傷害的程度可能有所不同。包括使用GA、GA加WAX、1-MCP、AVG等藥劑應用都對番木瓜果實於常溫貯藏皆無顯著延長貯藏性之效果,且使用1-MCP會造成無法後熟等症狀,影響果實品質。使用單層PE打孔包裝具有延長貯藏性的效果。在25℃、30℃、35℃的貯藏條件中貯藏七與十三天,結果顯示30℃貯藏至第十天、35℃貯藏七天,對照組果皮已有失水皺縮等現象,嚴重影響其外觀,而PE包裝組果實硬度遠高於對照組,果皮仍然光滑,且回復到室溫後果實仍可正常後熟。顯示番木瓜果實利用單層PE打孔包裝在常溫貯藏中可延長其貯藏壽命。

One of the most serious postharvest diseases of papaya fruits is anthracnose, which causes serious damage to the quality of the fruit during postharvest and transportation. Application of fungicide is the traditional effective way of controlling the problem but it causes environmental, food-safety, concerns and induces microbial resistances to the chemicals as well. Besides, some of the chemicals have been prohibited or could be prohibited in the furture. On the other hand, low-temperature storage is the common method to lengthen the short shelf life of the fruits but it is a costly practice. The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of using different ranges of temperature and time to control anthracnose of ‘Tainung No.2' papaya fruits. Efficiency of hot-water treatments-different degree of water temperature in various length of dipping time, the response of fruits at different stages of maturity to hot-water treatment and the estimation the feasibility of hot-water treatment prior to vapor heat treatment for quarantine were discussed. In addition, the effectiveness of different treatments on qualities of fruits and extending the shelf life of papayas at room temperature were also included in the study.

Hot-water treaments at 55℃, 57℃ and 59℃ inhibited the anthracnose hypha growth within 2 minutes while water treatment at 61℃ to 67℃ took only 40 seconds. Water treatment at 69℃completely inhibited the hypha growth within 20 seconds. Results showed that papaya inoculated with anthracnose and then proceeded with hot-water treatment preventing the development of symptoms if no damage from the hot water per se. However, damage could result when experiment was conducted during cooler months. The crops from June, August and September after treated with 57℃hot-water for 1.5 minutes, had a peel value of Fv/Fm above 0.400 but fruits of other months were below 0.400--a possible factor responsible for interfering peel color change. The alternative treatments of warm and hot water could exacerbate the injury to the fruit but degrees of damage varied from month to month. Application of GA, GA+WAX, 1-MCP, AVG etc had no significant effect of prolonging shelf life, whereas the use of 1-MCP led to the failure of ripening process. On the other hand, the perforated one layer PE packaging had the effect of lengthening fruits storage life. The papaya, which stored for 7 and 13 days at 25℃, 30℃ and 35℃, showed signs of peel shrinkage due to water loss. This phenomenon was most significant for fruits stored at 30℃ for 10 days, or 35℃ for 7 days.The control samples had similar trend. The fruit firmness of PE packing was higher than that of the control. The former had smooth skin and was able to proceed with ripening when returned to room temperature. This proved that the use of PE packaging was capable of extending fruits shelf life under a constant storage condition.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28863
其他識別: U0005-2208200715434500
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

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