Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28868
標題: 農產貿易與環境保護關係之研究--以養豬產業及有機農業為例
A Study on the Relationships between Agricultural Trade and Environmental Protection - Cases of the Hog Industry and Organic Agriculture
作者: 陳虹霖
Chen, Hung- Lin
關鍵字: agricultural trade;農產貿易;environment;hog industry;organic agriculture;環境;養豬產業;有機農業
出版社: 農業經濟學系
摘要: 
在農產貿易越趨自由化的今天,農業、貿易與環境三者存在著相互牽動的三角關係。台灣由於自然資源稀少,相當依賴國際貿易,所以對於農產貿易自由化對環境的影響,以及環保措施如何影響農產貿易的議題,也越來越受到重視。
本文以養豬產業及有機農業作為個案研究之對象,蒐集相關之文獻,經過整理、歸納,得到以下結論:
一、 台灣毛豬外銷比例已從民國75年的23.6﹪一直成長到民國84年的47.4﹪,外銷市場的拓展,對國內豬價穩定有極大影響,刺激了養豬戶擴大規模的意願,也因此產生了大量的豬糞尿廢水的排放,加上許多養豬場未加以妥善處理,對水體環境造成相當大的污染,而且情況日益嚴重,甚至影響了公共給水水源地之水質。國內養豬農戶已因為口蹄疫事件喪失外銷日本豬肉市場,如今又即將加入WTO,國內豬隻飼養頭數勢必要減產以因應入關後的衝擊。減少了國內豬隻飼養頭數,因此可望降低養豬廢水的污染量。
二、 近年來政府對於養豬戶的環境管制規定越來越嚴格,若一國採用嚴格的環境政策,在貿易自由化下,透過資源重新分配及減少外部性的發生,則社會福利會提高,環境品質也會獲得改善。部分學者研究也指出嚴格的環境管制會導致外銷上比較優勢喪失,國內養豬生產成本已較部分先進國家的養豬成本高出許多,因此未來我國更嚴格的環境管制措施將使得養豬產業的生產成本較其他先進國家又高出許多,降低了我國豬肉在國際上的價格競爭力,導致外銷數量的減少。
三、 未來我國即將加入WTO,農產品必須大幅調降關稅稅率,同時也需擴大開放進口,農業保護條件減少,國內農業生產勢必要減產以因應入關後的衝擊。有機農業主張生產時不採用化學肥料與化學農藥,解決了農業生產對環境污染的問題。所以農產貿易自由化後,推行有機農業,將有助於國內農業的永續發展。
四、有機農產品的生產成本較高,但隨著國民所得的快速增加,對於價格較高的有機食品國人已有消費的能力,國人對於飲食健康及安全也越來越注意,所以乾淨無污染的有機食品廣受歡迎,而通過有機農產品認證的有機食品更可增加貿易上的優勢。

As agricultural trade has increasingly become an important issue, more attention has been put on the relationships among agriculture, trade, and the environment. The linkages between agricultural trade and the environment are especially important for a country like Taiwan, which has very limited natural resources but depends largely on international trade.
This study adopted cases of hog industry and organic agriculture for analyzing the relations of trade and environment. The results of this study were as follows.
1. The proportion of hog exportation was from 23.6﹪in 1986 increased to 47.4﹪in 1995. The success of extending foreign markets for hog kept the domestic price stable and encouraged the hog farms increase their raising scale. As the production scale per hog farm expand, the quantity of waste increases fast, but many hog farms do not care about pollution control as such the situation is getting worse; this even degrades the water quality of public water sources. At present, Taiwan is still under the control of hoof and mouth disease. On the other hand, domestic hog market is under the pressure of trade liberalization. All these signal that it is necessary for us to reduce the hog production quantity to accommodate the entrance into WTO. Reduction in hog production will reduce dumping sewage into rivers flowing past their farms and improve our river environment.
2. As there are growing concerns of environmental protection in Taiwan, environmental regulatory on hog industry will be strictly imposed. If one country adopts strict environmental policy, then under the trade liberalization, its social welfare will be increased through the reallocation of resources, the decrease of externalities, and the improvement of environmental quality. Some studies have found that strictly environmental regulatory have led to significant reduce trade competition. The costs of hog production in Taiwan are already higher than some developed countries, so the cost of environmental compliance will raise highly the private cost of hog production and reduce the comparative advantage of hog industry.
3. Taiwan will take part in WTO in the near future, accordingly the customs tariff needs to be lowered, and in the mean time, the domestic market will be forced to open wider. It is thus necessary for us to reduce the quantity of agricultural production to accommodate the impact after entering into WTO. Organic agriculture advocates farming without the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, hence it is conducive to environment. Therefore, after agricultural trade liberalized, the implementation of organic agriculture is helpful for our agricultural sustainability.
4. The people in Taiwan have now paid more attention to the environmental quality as the national income has been increasing each year. Although organic products usually cost more than non-organic products, the demand for organic products has been steadily increasing, as we are more conscious about our health. Under such circumstances, the exportation of organic products will be more competitive, and those organic products with certification will enjoy comparative advantage.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28868
Appears in Collections:應用經濟學系

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