Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28884
標題: ‘台農二號’番木瓜果實品質、礦物營養與生理性斑點之周年性調查
Seasonal Fluctuation of Fruit Quality, Mineral Nutrient, and Skin Freckle of 'Tainung No.2' Papaya Fruits (Carica papaya. L.)
作者: 林玉茹
Lin, Yu-Ju
關鍵字: papaya;番木瓜;fruit quality;mineral element;skin freckle;果實品質;礦物營養;生理性斑點
出版社: 園藝學系所
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摘要: 
本試驗自2005年9月起至2006年11月止調查雲林縣林內鄉栽植之‘台農二號’番木瓜果實品質及生理性斑點發生情形。每月取樣一次,果實採收後於30℃下催熟,2日後調查。果皮於9月至11月皆可正常轉色,而12月至2月有轉色不良的現象,9~11月採收之果實可正常軟化,而12月以後果實硬度較高、後熟速率減緩。另外,糖度也以接近冬季者高於夏秋季。
番木瓜果實表面之生理性斑點(skin freckle)影響其外觀甚鉅,但發生機制未明且周年均會發生,以果實外側(向陽面)較為明顯,同常於採收前已出現斑點,催熟後常由綠色平面轉為更嚴重之木栓化突起狀,並遍佈果皮表面。斑點指數(freckle index, FI)以12月至隔年5月低溫生長季節最為嚴重,7-9月最輕微,果肉質地及果皮轉色較佳。
以電子顯微鏡進行顯微結構之觀察,果表均被角質層之蠟質覆蓋。綠熟果實之表面較為平坦完整,黃熟果則較有凹凸不平,其蠟質片段明顯為層疊板塊狀。於果實表面甚少觀察到氣孔,可能多被蠟質覆蓋,有斑點者周圍蠟塊更細薄且破碎。分析果實內外側元素濃度之週年變化,較嚴重之低溫季節或較嚴重部位(果實外側)分析結果顯示含有較高鈣濃度,但變化並不一致,內外側果肉、果皮間元素通常無顯著差異,與斑點之發生可能無直接關係,但斑點之發生與酚類化合物累積而導致褐化有關。番木瓜果實乳汁量隨果實發育階段而有減少之傾向,且斑點發生嚴重性逐漸增加,與乳汁管破裂有關,於蛋白質PAGE電泳分析中也顯示有斑點部位蛋白質條帶較趨近於乳汁,乳汁之流出造成果皮傷害,可能與斑點產生較有相關性。
葉片礦物元素之周年變化顯示,各元素濃度為N:3.5-3.7%;磷:0.32-0.33%;鉀:2.4-2.5%;鈣:2.2-2.5%;鎂:0.65-0.7%;鐵:80-100ppm;錳:20-25ppm;鋅:20-25ppm;銅:4-5ppm,可供葉片分析方法標準化及營養診斷、肥培管理之參考。而8至9月之變化較平緩,為採樣適期。

Papaya fruit samples were collected once a month in Lennei County from Sep. 2005 to Nov. 2006, and were ripened at 30℃ for two days. Samples from September to November displayed normal color turning, and ripening, samples from Dec. 2005 to Feb 2006 showed relatively hard pulp, slower ripening and poor color change. Total soluble solids was higher in winter month than summer.
Papaya skin freckle is a physiological disorder. It happens all year round especially on the abaxial portion of the fruit. The symptom appears before harvest and develops into suberized lumpy patch and spread to the whole skin layer after ripening, thus affects the appearance of fruits seriously. But the mechanism of the disorder is unknown. The freckle index (FI) was high from Dec. to next May, lower from July to Sept.
Observing the ultrastracture of fruit peel by SEM and found the surface of fruits was covered with wax and cuticle. The surface of green papaya was smooth, while the yellow ripe fruits, rough and uneven. The fraction of wax was obviously in layer formation. Stomata were hardly visible, possibly because they were covered by the wax therein and wax-like fragment around freckles were rather thin and broken. Monthly mineral analysis showed higher calcium concentration in fruit abaxial side during the cooler season. There was no significant variation observed in mineral elements on abaxial or adaxial side. Freckles might not directly relate to the concentrations of elements, but was associated with the accumulation of total phenolic compounds.
As fruits going through developing stages, papaya latex volume decreased, freckle index increased and proteins pattern demonstrated similar tendency as latex. The exudates of latex might possibly be one factor of fruit injury. It was suggested that latex played an important role in the case of freckle induction.
The seasonal changes of mineral levels of ‘Tainung No. 2'papaya leaf was determined. The ranges of various mineral elements were as followed: N: 3.5-3.7%;P: 0.32-0.33%;K: 2.4-2.5%;Ca: 2.2-2.5%;Mg: 0.65-0.7%;Fe: 80-100ppm;Mn: 20-25ppm;Zn: 20-25ppm;Cu: 4-5ppm. The data could be used as a guide for the diagnosis of mineral disorders, soil management of papaya. It is concluded that August to September are the proper months to sample for analysis because of the stable condition of minerals in papaya leaves.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28884
其他識別: U0005-2308200711261300
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

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