Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/2889
標題: 機車觸媒劣化模擬與點火失效對引擎性能及汙染之影響
Simulation of catalyst deterioration and the effect of misfire on the emission and engine performance of motorcycle engine
作者: 巫昶泰
Wu, Chang Tai
關鍵字: 觸媒劣化;Catalyst;機車引擎;點火失效;OBD;deterioration;motorcycle;engine;misfire;OBD
出版社: 機械工程學系所
引用: [1] 春迪企業股份有限公司,“使用中汽油車排氣檢驗及保養制度推動專案工作計畫期末報告”,環境保護署,2011年。 [2] 林俊毅,<車上診斷系統(OBD)簡介>,財團法人車輛測試研究中心專題報導。 [3] Zhijian James Wu, Anson Lee, “Misfire Detection Using a Dynamic Neural Network with Output Feedback”, SAE Paper 980515. [4] Mahieu, M., P. Duponcheele, B. Leduc, J.L. Vanhemelrijk, M. Morenville, and P. Dehout, (2000), “Misfire Detection on S.I. Engines by Instantaneous Torque Analysis”, SAE Paper 2000-01-0367. [5] Kiencke U., “Engine misfire detection”, Control Engineering Practice 7 (1999) 203-208. [6] Martina Rohal, ova Ilkivovaa, Boris Rohal, Ilkivb, Tomas Neuschl, “Comparison of a linear and nonlinear approach to engine misfires detection”, Control Engineering Practice 10 (2002) 1141–1146. [7] Francisco V. Tinaut, Andre s Melgar, Hannes Lageta, Jose I. Domgnguez, “Misfire and compression fault detection through the energy model”, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 21 (2007) 1521–1535. [8] Brett, A.L. Neville, W.H. Preston, J. Williamson, “An investigation into lubricant related poisoning of automotive three-way catalysts and lambda sensors”, SAE paper No. 890490, 1989. [9] Ueda F., Sugiyama S., Arimura K., Hamaguchi S., Akiyama K., “Engine oil additive effects on deactivation of monolithic three-way catalysts and oxygen sensors”, SAE paper No. 940746, 1994. [10] Twigg M., “Automotive exhaust emissions control”, Plat. Met. Rev. 47 (4) (2003) 157–162. [11] Kenneth R. Muske, James C. Peyton Jones, James W. Howse, “A model-based approach to automotive three-way catalyst on-board monitoring”, Journal of Process Control 18 (2008) 163–172. [12] Kurihara N., Kimura H., Ishii T., and Takaku Y., “An On-Board Diagnosis Method For Three-Way Catalyst Deterioration”, SAE paper 972854. [13] Maunula T., Vakkilainen A., Lievonen A., Torkkell K., Niskanen K. and Harkonen M., “Low Emission Three-way Catalyst and OSC Material Development for OBD Diagnostics”, SAE paper 1999-01-3625. [14] Hepburn J.S., Dobson D.A., Hubbard C.P., Guldberg S.O., Thanasiu E, Watkins W.L, Burns B.D, Gandhi H.S., “A Review of the dual EGO Sensor Method for OBD-II Catalyst Efficiency Monitoring”, SAE paper 942057, 1994. [15] Panagiotis D. Sparis, Pantelis N. Botsarls, Dimitrios Papadopoulos, and Anastasios Karkanis, “Three-Way Catalyst Assessment Via Inlet-Outlet Temperature Measurements: A Preliminary Report”, SAE paper 942055, 1994. [16] Hyuk Jae Kwon, Joon Hyun Baik,Yong Tak Kwona, In-Sik Nam, Se H. Oh, “Detailed reaction kinetics over commercial three-way catalysts”, Chemical Engineering Science 62 (2007) 5042–5047. [17] Ronald M. Heck, Robert J. Farrauto, “Automobile exhaust catalysts”, Applied Catalysis A: General 221 (2001) 443–457. [18] Degobert P., “Automobiles and Pollution”, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Warrendale, PA, 1995. [19] Church M.L., Cooper B.J., Willson P.J., “Catalyst Formulations 1960 to Present”, SAE Paper 890815, 1989, p. 1. [20] John B. Heywood, “Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals”, 1995, p.701. [21] Kiencke U., Nielsen L., “Automotive Control Systems”, 2000, p.75. [22] Martin Weilenmann, “Aspects of highly transient catalyst simulation”, Catalysis Today 188 (2012) 121– 134. [23] Li-Ping Ma, Hans-Jorg Bart, Ping Ning, Aimin Zhang, GuozhengWu, Zhu Zengzang, “Kinetic study of three-way catalyst of automotive exhaust gas: Modeling and application”, Chemical Engineering Journal 155 (2009) 241–247. [24] Voltz S.E., Morgan C.R., Liederman D., Jacob S.M., “Kinetic study of carbonmonoxide and propylene oxidation on platinum catalysts”, Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev. 12 (1973) 294–301. [25] Oh S.H., Fisher G.B., Carpenter J.E., Goodman D.W., “Comparative kinetic studies of CO–O2 and CO–NO reactions over single crystal and supported rhodium catalysts”, J. Catal. 100 (1986) 360–376. [26] Subramanlam B., Varma A., “Reaction kinetics on a commercial three-way catalyst: the CO–NO–O2–H2O system”, Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev. 24 (1985) 512–516. [27] Pontikakis G and Stamatelos A, “Mathematical modelling of catalytic exhaust systems for EURO-3 and EURO-4 emissions standards”, Journal of Automobile Journal of Automobile, 2001 215. [28] Gottberg, I., Rydquist, J., Backlund, O., Wallman, S. et al., &quot;New Potential Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Technologies for “Clean Car” Legislation,&quot; SAE Technical Paper 910840, 1991, doi:10.4271/910840. [29] Pankaj Kumar, ImadMakki, JamesKerns, KarolosGrigoriadis, Matthew Franchek, VemuriBalakotaiah, “A low-dimensional model for describing the oxygen storage capacity and transient behavior of a three-way catalytic converter”, Chemical Engineering Science 73 (2012) 373–387. [30] Koltsakis G.C., Konstantinidis P.A., Stamatelos A.M., “Development and application range of mathematical models for 3-way catalytic converters”, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 12 (1997) 161-191.
摘要: 
本篇論文探討以旁通管方式模擬觸媒劣化的可行性,以及點火失效對於引擎汙染排放及性能的影響。車上診斷系統(On Board Diagnostic, OBD)發展過程當中需要一套認證程序檢測系統的功能性,以確保診斷系統能夠確實偵測出汙染排放相關元件的劣化或故障,降低車輛的汙染排放。OBD系統認證程序中的觸媒劣化檢測項目,其檢測方式為使用已劣化的測試觸媒進行測試,且劣化程度必須使汙染物排放量剛好等於OBD系統監測的門檻值,以測試OBD系統的準確性。然而測試觸媒一般使用長時間加熱的方式加速劣化,但此方式不易控制且造價昂貴,因此本研究使用旁通管模擬不同劣化程度的觸媒。本研究使用機車引擎於引擎動力計與底盤動力計測試模擬裝置的可行性,並利用含氧感知器訊號計算出觸媒劣化指標。實驗結果顯示可藉由調整旁通閥的開度控制排氣系統下游汙染物排放量,模擬不同劣化程度的觸媒。本文亦建立觸媒零維模式驗證排氣系統模擬觸媒劣化的可行性。
本研究以單晶片為基礎製做點火失效產生器,使用機車引擎於引擎動力計測試,調整不同比例的點火失效,於引擎不同轉速與負載下,探討點火失效對於引擎汙染排放與性能的影響。實驗結果顯示,當引擎處於低負載時,一氧化碳濃度值隨著點火失效比例增加而上升,而在高負載時則下降,二氧化碳濃度則相反。無論在高負載或低負載狀態下未燃碳氫化合物濃度皆隨著點火失效比例增加而上升,引擎扭力隨著點火失效比例增加而下降。

A novel approach to simulate the catalyst deterioration and the effect of misfire on emission and engine performance are discussed in this paper. In the development of the OBD system of a vehicle, an aged catalyst is required to test the function of the system. This catalyst is partially deteriorated and the emission after this catalyst will exceed the regulation value with limited bound according to the testing protocol. This aged catalyst is very valuable, and difficult to prepare. A bypass in the exhaust pipe was used to simulate the deterioration of catalyst in this paper to investigate the emission characteristics of a motorcycle engine. This method of simulation has been conducted in a dynamometer testing and a chassis dynamometer testing. An electronic controlled motorcycle engine was used in these tests. Wind band oxygen sensors’ signals were used to calculate the catalyst deterioration index. The result shows that the degree of deterioration can be controlled by the portion of exhaust flow through the parallel pipe. A low dimensional catalyst model was built to confirm the practicability of the exhaust system made in this paper.
A misfire generator based on single chip was developed in this paper to investigate the effect of misfire on the emission and engine performance of a single cylinder motorcycle engine. The results of the engine dynamometer tests show that the concentration of unburned hydrocarbons in the engine exhaust was raised and the engine torque declined as the misfire rate increased. At low load, CO concentration increased with the misfire rate while CO2 moved in an opposite direction. Contrary condition happened at high load. The CO2 concentration increased with the misfire rate while CO varied in the opposite way.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/2889
其他識別: U0005-3101201316331500
Appears in Collections:機械工程學系所

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