Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28942
標題: 低海拔梨花穗品質與高接果實發育關係之研究
The Relationship between Pear Flower-budwoods Quality and the Development of Top-grafted Fruits in the Taiwan Lowland
作者: 張祐銘
Chang, You-Min
關鍵字: pear;梨;flower-budwoods;top-grafted;development of Fruits;梨花穗;高接梨;果實發育
出版社: 園藝學系所
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摘要: 
本試驗目的為台灣低海拔地區梨花穗品質與高接果實發育關係之研究。試驗材料為台灣自行育出低需冷性品種-玉金香梨(Julip)與韓國高需冷性品種-早生黃金梨(Early Gold)。於低海拔地區(500 M)利用修剪及誘引進行梨穗生產。並分別高接於彰化縣和美鎮、台中縣大甲鎮及台中縣和平鄉三地區,探討低海拔梨穗品質與高接果實發育之關係。
由試驗結果可以得知,在台灣低海拔地區春夏季修剪均能有效的控制新梢的生長勢。(1)玉金香梨以4月修剪後新梢之花芽比率最高。(2)不同時期誘引對花芽分化數之影響,玉金香梨以8月誘引者平均花芽數最高,為9.13個/枝。(3)低海拔地區玉金香梨穗可於10月進行採穗。然而(4)早生黃金梨修剪後之新梢幾乎無法進行花芽分化。(5)誘引對於增加早生黃金梨花芽分化數無顯著效果。(6)在低海拔地區於9月下旬至10月上旬早生黃金梨穗即可進行採穗。
低海拔梨穗於1月下旬在不同地區進行高接,和美及大甲地區其果實生育日數較和平鄉短,採收期也較早,而果實品質也優於和平鄉。同時高接於和美地區則以早生黃金梨採收期較玉金香梨提早約兩週,果實生育日數也較短。和美地區高接梨果實發育初期縱徑生長較橫徑快,於花後90天後,縱徑增長趨於緩慢而橫徑明顯快速增長。果實鮮重、乾重及果實生長速率自花後105天後急劇增加。果實所需發育天數,玉金香梨約在盛花後160~170 天,早生黃金梨約在盛花後150~160 天。
嫁接時期試驗之結果顯示,於和美地區提早高接雖可相對的提早採收日期,但愈早嫁接所需生育日數愈長。早生黃金梨於12月上旬高接者,果實採收期可提早至5月下旬;於1月下旬高接者,果實生育日數為最短,約147天。果實品質方面,12月高接者之果實品質,鮮果重大約在250~300g,糖度也都在10˚Brix以上,與1月高接者差異不大均可達到商品價值。
綜合本試驗結果可初步了解,於台灣低海拔地區(500M)利用修剪、誘引可成功生產綠皮系之玉金香及早生黃金梨穗。低海拔梨穗高接於台中彰化近海地區,可生產早熟、優質之高接梨果實。

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the quality of pear flower-budwoods and the development of top-grafted fruits in the Taiwan lowland. Two pear cultivars were tested in this study. One is the low chilling requirement cultivar, ‘Julip' (Pyrus Pyrifolia Nakai), that was bred in Taiwan and the other is high chilling requirement cultivar, ‘Early-Gold' (Pyrus Pyrifolia Nakai), was bred in Korea. Pear shoots were pruned and reorientation for producing the flower-budwoods in the lowland (500 M), then to be top-grafted in Hemei (20M), Dajia (20M) and Heping (500M), respectively.
In the Taiwan lowland, spring and summer pruning could effectively control the shoot growth. (1) ‘Julip' had the highest proportion of the flower-bud when pruning in early April. (2) Effect of shoot reorientation time on the flower-buds formation of ‘Julip' pear, reorientation in early August had the most flower-buds, an average was 9.13 per shoot. (3) ‘Julip' pear flower-budwoods could harvest in the October. (4) ‘Early-Gold' almost had no flower formation after pruning. (5) Reorientation to increasing ‘Early-Gold' flower-buds was no significant effect. (6) From late September to early October, ‘Early-Gold' pear flower-budwoods could harvest in the lowland.
Flower-budwoods producing in the lowland grafted in late January. Growing time of pear fruit, harvest time and quality of fruits in Hemei and Dajia were better than Heping. In Hemei, ‘Early-Gold' harvested earlier than ‘Julip' about 2 weeks, and fruit growing time was also fewer, about 10 days. In Hemei, length of fruit grew faster than width in the stage Ⅰ of pear fruit development, 90 days after full bloom, width of fruit was obviously rapid growth. Fruit weight, dry weight and fruit growth rate increased rapidly since 105 day after full bloom. The day of ‘Julip' fruit development is between 160 to 170 days and ‘Early-Gold' is between 150 to 160 days after the flowering.
The result of different grafting stages shows that early top-grafting could promote the earlier harvest time but days of fruit development were longer. Top-grafted ‘Early-Gold' in early December could promote the harvest time to late May; top-grafting in late January had the least fruit development days about 147 days. For the fruit of top-grafting in early December, fresh weight was about 250~300g and total soluble solids was more than 10 ˚ Brix, to meet the standards of market.
The results show that the pruning and the reorientation are the way to obtain the flower-budwoods with quality in the low altitude. With such flower-budwoods, it is possible to produce the early commodities of top-grafted pear in the Taiwan lowland.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28942
其他識別: U0005-1308200821502800
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

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