Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/2895
標題: 熱影像檢測技術應用於複合材料結構缺陷之探討
A study of using the thermography testing techniques to inspect defects of CFRP Structure
作者: 劉慶堂
Liu, Ching-Tang
關鍵字: 熱影像檢測;thermography testing;脈衝波熱源;梯波熱源;複材結構;蜂巢結構;pulse heating;step heating;CFRP;Honeycomb
出版社: 機械工程學系所
引用: [1]E.Grinzato, V.A.M. Luprano, S. Marinetti, P.G. Bison, R. Trentin, 2005, Thermal NdE of FRP applied to civil structures, CNR-ITC c.so Stati uniti,4-35127 Padua, Italy [2]W. Swiderski, D. Szabra, M. Szudrowicz, 2008, Nondestructive Test of composite armours by using IR thermographic method, 9thinternational Conference on Quantitative Infrared Thermography. July 2-5, 2008, Krakow – Poland [3]Tsuchin Philip Chu, 2009,Introduction to Nondestructive Testing, Professor of the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. [4]X.Maldague, 2002, Introduction to NDT by Active Infrared Thermography, Electrical and Computing Engineering DepartmentUniversité Laval. [5]Peter A.A.M. Somers and Hedser van Brug, 2005, Temporal phase unwrapping in a real-time phase stepped shearing speckle interferometer: a comparison of algorithms. Optics Research Group, Delft University of Technology the Netherlands [6]Ching-Tang Liu, Min-Jui Huang, Yicheng Peter Pan, Daniel Shedlock, Tsuchin Philip Chu,2012, Detection of defects in Carbon composites using X-ray Compton Backscatter Radiography: Radiography by Selective Detection,Materials Evaluation, 70, 3, pp.367. [7]P. Servais, N. Gerlach, 2006, Development of a NDT method using thermography for composite material inspection on aircraft using military thermal imager, ISBN 2-9809199-0-X. [8]ViorelAnghel,NicolaeConstanitin, Mircea Gavan, Stefan SOROHAN, 2009, Some Applications of Thermography in NDE of Structure, SISOM 2009 and Session of the Commission of Acoustics, Bucharest 28-29 May [9]V. P. VAVILOV, 2007, Pulsed thermal NDT of materials: back to the basics, Nondestructive Testing and EvaluationVol. 22, Nos. 2–3, June–September 2007, 177–197. [10]S.G, Pickering, D.P Almond, 2009, Matched Excitation Energy Comparsion of the pulse and Lock-In Thermography NDE Techniques,CP1096 Review Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation Vol. 28. [11]Bradley G. Bainbridge, 2010, Optimization of Transient Thermography Inspection of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes in the Graduate School Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. [12]F.de Monte, 1999, Transient heat conduction in one-dimension composite slab. A ‘natural’ analytic approach, International Journal of heat and Mass Transfer 43(2000) 3607-3619. [13]M. Necati Qzisik, 1985, Heat Transfer A Basic Approach, ISN 0-07-047982-8 [14]Sergio Marinetti, Alberto Muscio, Paolo G. Bison and Ermanno G. Grinzato, "Modeling of thermal nondestructive evaluation techniques for composite materials", Proc. SPIE 4020, 164 (2000); [15]Xinyu Fan, Ignaas VERPOEST and Dirk Vandepit,2006, Finite Element Analysis of Out-of-planeCompressive Properties ofThermoplastic Honeycomb, Journal of Sandwich Structuresand Materials, Vol. 8—September 2006 437. [16]P. Innocenti and F. Scarpa, 2009, Thermal Conductivity Properties and Heat Transfer Analysis of Multi-re-entrant Auxetic Honeycomb Structures, Journal of COMPOSITE MATERIALS, Vol. 43, No. 21/2009. [17]Viorel Anghel, Nicolae Constantinetc, 2010, Application of Infrared Thermography in NDE of Sandwich Composite Structures, SISOM 2010 and Session of the Commission of Acoustics, Bucharest 27-28 May. [18]A318/A319/A320/A321 2008/08/01, Nondestructive Testing Manual Part 10 Thermographic ALI NO. 55-20-07. [19]Boeing Nondestructive Test 200/12/05, Part 9 thermography Inspection for Ice or water in honeycomb Parts. [20]Ronald F. Gibson 1994, Principles of Composite Material Mechanics, ISBN 0-07-113335-6 [21]Infrared spectrum.gif From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Infrared_spectrum.gif#file
摘要: 
為探討熱影像檢測技術運用於複材結構缺陷之檢測,本論文研製一套造價較低廉且有效率之熱影像檢測儀器,運用於實際飛行器複材結構瑕疵之檢測。為使檢測儀器簡化與易於攜帶及熱能供應效率考量,本研究乃選用脈衝波(Pulse)及梯波(Step)熱源供應方式的熱影像檢測儀。首先本研究使用有限元素法,來評估複材結構具有瑕疵時對熱傳導之影響,並分析瑕疵區域與正常區域溫度差異之大小,進一步估算加熱量及時間長短對溫度變化影響以及決定紅外線攝影機解析度及波長之選擇,做為設計檢測試片之參考依據。
本文利用自行開發紅外線熱影像檢測儀,並將試片送至國內外非破壞檢測實驗室做比對測試,確認自行研製檢測儀器功能。經由驗證測試比對結果發現,自行開發之熱影像檢測儀,乃具有同等的檢設功效,另外本研究也使用空氣偶合超音波(Air couple)及反射式X-Ray等非破外檢測方法進行測試具有不同瑕疵之複材結構試片,相互比對測試結果。
在檢測能力,經由測試驗證結果確認自行開發之熱影像檢測儀器,對較淺層(小於2.0 mm)複材結構瑕疵,部分試片瑕疵面積為3 × 3mm2仍可以有效辨識,立體層次較深層與尺寸較小之瑕疵則無法有效辨識。
然而此系統仍有限制與需要精進的地方,目前本系統僅能顯現二維平面缺陷,無法有效辨識瑕疵在三維空間之深度及精確位置,深層之瑕疵仍需輔以其它非壞檢測方法。另外熱源供應的均勻度與檢測材料的表面也會影響檢測的能力。
此外,本研究使用自行開發之紅外線熱檢測儀,檢測複材結構疊層較少之輕型航空載具控制面,經測試結果驗證,本系統可以有效辨析結構膠合之缺陷。本系統具操作容易、快速檢測與可現地量測優點,可以節省量測時間及提升檢測效率。

For researching the thermography testing technology used to detect the defects of composite material structure, this study developed a set of thermal testing equipment which is low-cost and efficient for using to detect the defects in composite material structural of aircraft. In order to simplify the testing instruments, easy to carry and to provide efficiency heating source, the pulse heating and the step heating method were chosen as an active heat source in our developing test system. First at all, This research used the finite element method to calculate the impact on the thermal conductivity of the composite structure with flaw, which result in the temperature difference between the defective area and normal area, and then to estimate the flux and time of exposure of heating and infrared camera performance of resolution and wavelength. This result is valuable information for designing the specimen and experimental method.
For verification the performance of development thermography testing equipment, this research used standard composite material specimen with artificial defects for evaluation. In the same time, these specimens were evaluated by other non-destructive testing laboratories. The test results verified that developed thermography testing equipment has the same performance of other test lab’s thermography equipment. In addition, this research also refer to the different non-destructive testing methods results, such as air-coupled ultrasound, Back reflective X-Ray, to compare the inspection capability among these methods.
Test results were confirmed that defects, in shallower position (less than 2.0 mm) and the minimum area 3x3 mm2, can be effectively identified by developed thermography testing equipment. The defects, in structure deeper zone and smaller dimension, can not be identified. The drawback of this system which is only showed the defects on two-dimensional. It does not identify effectively the flaw for depth location and precise position in space, so the defects in deeper space need using other non-destructive testing methods to inspect. Also, the uniformity of heat source and surface of specimen affect inspecting capability of thermography testing equipment.
In addition, developed thermography testing equipment was used to detect the composite material structure which is a thin laminated construction of unmanned aircraft control surfaces. The test result shows the defects of adhesive bounding problem can be identified effectively. This thermography testing equipment has advantage of easy to operate, rapid detection and on-side supporting test, which can save measurement time and enhance the efficiency.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/2895
其他識別: U0005-0508201212042500
Appears in Collections:機械工程學系所

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