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Effects of Plant Growth Regulators and Hot Water Dipping Treatment on the Occurrance of Pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] Blackheart Disorder
|關鍵字:||heat treatment;熱處理;polyphenol oxidase;PPO;phenolic compounds;多酚氧化酵素;酚類化合物||出版社:||園藝學系所||引用:||1. 周雅玲。2005。化學藥劑處理對鳳梨果實品質之影響。國立中興大學園藝學系碩士論文。 2. 張尊三、吳永欽。1961。鳳梨果實生理性黑腐病之研究。植物保護學會會刊3: 197-206。 3. 張清勤。1991。鳳梨台農四號外銷果實採收成熟度之研究。中華農業研究40 : 37- 44。 4. 黃碧海。2004。台灣鳳梨產銷現況與發展。台灣鳳梨研究與發展研討會專刊。國立嘉義大學編印。p. 1-12。 5. 農業統計年報。2006。行政院農業委員會。 6. 顏妙芬。1999。數種鮮食鳳梨果實發育期間之理化特性變化。國立中興大學園藝學系碩士論文。 7. Acedo, A. L., T. Akinaga, and T Tanabe. 2004. In nhibition of chilling injury and quality changes in pineapple fruit with prestorage heat treatment. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment 2: 81-86. 8. Akamine, E. K., T. Goo, T. Steepy, T. Greidanus, and N. Iwaoka. 1975. Control of endogenous brown spot of fresh pineapple in postharvest handling. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 100: 60-65. 9. Assmann, S. M. 2007. Solute transport, p.108-116. In：Taiz, L and E. Zeiger. (eds.). Plant Physiology. Sinaure Associates, Sunderland. 10. Avallone, S., J. P. Guiraud, J. M. Brillouet, and C. 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本研究調查台農17號''金鑽''鳳梨採收後處理生長調節劑、溫湯處理及8℃低溫貯藏對果實品質與多酚氧化酵素(polyphenol oxidase; PPO)活性之影響。GA3處理可以延緩果實轉色及果冠萎凋，提高可滴定酸含量，但也會使果實黑心劣變的發生率與黑心劣變指數提高。處理水楊酸 200 μM與400 μM可以減少果冠萎凋，400μM之處理並可延緩果皮與果肉轉色，但水楊酸處理對鳳梨黑心劣變並無預防或降低效果。
台農17號''金鑽''鳳梨果肉PPO活性表現最高之pH值範圍約在7～8之間。萃取緩衝液中加入PVPP 與Triton X-100能提高PPO活性。以catechol、4-methylcatechol、pyrogallol、chlorogenic acid、caffeic acid為PPO反應基質其結果以4-methylcatechol為基質所測得之活性最高。
Effects of plant growth regulator, hot water dipping treatment and 8℃ cold storage on quality and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the Tainung-17 ''Jin Zuan'' pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus L. Merr.) were studied. The results showed that GA3 treatment delayed fruit coloring and fruit crown withering but increased titratable acidity and the incidence and severity of blackheart disorder. Application of 200 μM and 400 μM salicylic acid reduced the percentage of withered fruit crown. Treating fruits with 400 μM salicylic acid can also delay skin and flesh coloring. There was no significant effect on lowering the incidence of blackheart disorder by salicylic acid treatment.
The highest PPO activity assayed was found in reaction buffer pH value between 7 and 8. Adding PVPP and Triton X-100 in the extraction buffer can enhance the assayed PPO activity. PPO enzyme had the highest activity assayed when 4-methylcateshol was used as reaction substrate compared with catechol, pyrogallol, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid.
The spring-summer fruits, harvested from April to July, were seriously scalded by the 47℃ hot water dipping treatment. It only needed 42℃ to cause serious scald in winter fruits harvested in January. Hot water treatment temperature over 36℃ and 38℃enhanced the rate of water loss and the percentage of withered fruit crown, respectively. Two-step hot water treatment, first to increase the center temperature of fruit crown to 30℃ or 35℃ followed by at room temperature for 12 hours, then raising the temperature to 42℃ or 45℃, respectively, could not reduce the percentage of withered fruit crown and scald area of fruit flesh. In fruits of 42℃ and 45℃ treatment, the incidence and severity of blackheart, the PPO activity, and the electrolyte leakage were reduced. The skin and flesh coloration was also delayed. The results of this study demonstrated that hot water dipping treatment could reduce the PPO activity and the occurrence of blackheart disorder in Tainung-17 ''Jin Zuan'' pineapple fruit flesh.
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