Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29029
標題: ‘巨峰’葡萄果實採後低溫貯藏之品質變化及延長貯藏之探討
Change in the Postharvest Quality and Extended Storage Life of 'Kyoho' Grape (Vitis vinifera × V. labruscana) during Cold Storage
作者: 李文豪
Li, Wen-Hao
關鍵字: ‘Kyoho' Grape;‘巨峰’葡萄;storage temperature;shatter;貯藏溫度;脫粒
出版社: 園藝學系所
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摘要: 
在激勃素及乳酸鈣處理試驗中,噴施50及100 ppmGA3之‘巨峰’葡萄處理組,其果穗上方的果梗直徑分別為6.87及8.17mm,和對照組的5.63mm有顯著差異,且脫粒率在第三個月發生情形也較嚴重,而噴施乳酸鈣之處理組,在第三個月硬度表現較對照組佳,在脫粒及腐爛率上則和對照組未達顯著差異。在-1~15℃不同貯藏溫度及夏冬果比較試驗中,貯藏一個月內以-1~6℃為佳,貯藏兩個月內則以-1~3℃以下為佳,而三個月內則以-1~1℃佳,在不結冰的前提下,貯藏溫度越低其葡萄果實貯藏時間越長。隨著採收成熟度的增加,除了硬度越來越低外,其脫粒率和腐爛率則有上升的趨勢。在不同的採收時間試驗中,以早上六點或是傍晚採收其脫粒率有稍微的降低。隨著延遲入庫時間的增加,失重率也逐漸上升,相對的硬度則有下降的表現,在貯藏一個月後,各延遲時間的處理組彼此間脫粒率差異不大,但貯藏至第二個月時,延遲入庫12小時之葡萄脫粒率則高達11.68%,此時腐爛率8.18%也高於其它處理組。利用PE袋進行密封或扭結包裝之處理組,其失重率都明顯低於使用紙袋做包裝之對照組,硬度的維持上,也以密封或扭結包裝之處理組較佳,紙袋包裝之葡萄在貯藏一個月後,果梗即出現明顯的褐化現象,貯藏時間達三個月時,其果梗呈現乾枯,果粒則明顯皺縮。使用二氧化硫來延長‘巨峰’葡萄其貯藏時間的試驗中,處理0.5、1及2克/袋偏重亞硫酸氫鈉之處理組,對腐爛的抑制情形皆十分良好,但處理劑量高於1克/袋時,在小果梗及果實頂端容易產生漂白的情形,劑量越高,果皮及果肉組織傷害也越嚴重。不同的葡萄產地,其果實品質差異極大,主要和地理位置、環境氣候及栽培管理等有關,在客觀比較上實屬困難,而在同產地,嫁接和實根苗的比較上,嫁接苗的硬度表現較實根苗佳,但由於嫁接和實根苗之樹體生長年齡不盡相同,勢必對這結果會造成影響,故仍待做更進一步的試驗來做比較。

‘Kyoho' grape is the main grape cultivar in Taiwan, the prices usually crash during the production seasons and skyrocket on the non-production days. In this research, several aspects in relation to the after harvest grape quality is discussed, including gibberellins and calcium lactate treatment; storage temperature; maturity and timing of harvest; time delay of storage; methods of packaging; fumigation of SO2; and locations of production. These experimental factors are presented to express the quality variations of ‘Kyoho' grape, such as weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), firmness, shatter, and berry decay.
The quality of grape is decided by external elements like cluster shape; uniformity of fruit color; the amount of fruit powder; the size of fruit grain; and internal ones such as flavor and sugar-acid ratio (TSS : TA). These are influenced by the pre-harvest field management and the post-harvest storage management. In order to extend the post-harvest storage life of ‘Kyoho' grape and preserve the best quality, temperature of storage are suggested around 0℃±1℃ but higher warmth will cause the dehydration, shatter and rot. As for the harvest maturity, it should be optimal not to over ripened, as the ‘Kyoho' grape is rated as a sour cultivar and people are fascinated with its sour-sweet flavor. Furthermore, excess maturity will also decrease the firmness and increase the rot. In the timing of harvest experiment, temperature variation were minimal due to the cloudy weather. Therefore, the experiments didn't reveal remarkable variation of results. In order to prevent weight loss, shatter, and lower the deterioration of firmness, the grapes must be stored within six hours after harvest. The sealed package can best maintain the quality of grape peduncle. It can also prevent weight loss, and maintain TSS, TA and firmness. However, the special flavor will disappear during the 2nd and 3rd month after storage. The common practice grapes are placed in the baskets after harvest and sealed within large plastic bags. However, if rot is present it will infect the healthy fruit. This problem will be solved if the grape clusters are individually wrapped in PE. However, this packaging method is time and labor consuming and needs to be evaluated for cost-effectiveness. In these experiments, it was found that winter grapes are superior than summer grapes due to better storage performance and maintenance of quality. In conclusion, winter crops of ‘Kyoho' grape should be harvested at 80% of maturity; the harvest time should before 9 a.m.;the grape should be placed in storage within six hours of harvesting; and they should be kept at 0℃±1℃ individually wrapped in PE. Following these conditions optimal storage life can be maintained up to 3 months.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29029
其他識別: U0005-2507200814471100
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

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