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Effect of Hot Air Treatment on Quality of 'Fuyu'Persimmon (Disopyros kaki L.) Fruits during Cold Storage
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‘富有’甜柿果實在經低溫貯藏後會產生褐化、軟化等徵狀，此為縮短長期貯藏壽命之主要原因。本試驗之目的在建立‘富有’甜柿貯藏前熱風處理最適條件，探討果實褐化之發生因子，期能減少貯藏期間柿果之褐化與軟化之發生以降低損耗，提高果實貯藏品質，以增加柿果貯藏壽命，達到延長柿果供貨期之目的。柿果貯藏前，處理1-MCP於密閉空間進行8小時處理，熱風則是將果實利用溫度條件為46℃、49℃、52℃及55℃分別進行1至4小時之處理，經貯藏在1℃環境，於1、2及3個月時當天及回溫2天（48小時）後取樣，分別測定呼吸率、乙烯釋放率、果皮顏色、果肉硬度及糖度。結果顯示貯藏前利用熱風處理相較於對照組，其對‘富有’甜柿果實呼吸率、乙烯釋放率、果皮褐化程度皆有顯著的抑制效果，且能維持良好的硬度，但於糖度則無明顯的影響。‘富有’甜柿果實採收後先在常溫下(23±2℃)處理1ppm 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) 8小時，之後進行熱風處理，熱風處理溫度條件為52℃，處理持續時間分別為3小時，熱風處理後置於常溫下將果實冷卻後逐果以聚乙烯袋(0.03mm)套袋，袋口扭結不密封，然後置於1±0.5℃下貯藏，貯藏期為3個月，分別測定苯丙氨酸脫胺裂解氨酶(PAL)活性之分析、總酚類化合物含量、多酚氧化酵素活性之測定、ACC含量之分析及離子滲漏率之測定。結果顯示貯藏前利用熱風處理相較於對照組，其‘富有’甜柿果肉之苯丙氨酸脫胺裂解氨酶(PAL)活性被抑制，總酚類化合物含量、ACC含量與離子滲漏率則明顯降低，至於多酚氧化酵素活性則無明顯的影響。本試驗中，熱風處理有顯著維持柿果貯藏後品質的效果，且熱風處理處理能夠應用於大量的果實，適用於大量商業化之使用，其綜合多項項目最適條件為46℃-3hr、49℃-2hr、52℃-3hr、52℃-4hr及55℃-3hr，有最佳維持品質的效果。
The ‘Fuyu' persimmon fruit tends to develop flesh browning and softing after being stored at low temperature and thus affecting storage life. The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the causes of browning and softing and to find the optimum temperature of treatments to lengthen the storage life and improve the fruit quality.
All the persimmons were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1 ppm) in an airtight space at room temperature (25℃) for 8 hours and then were divided into 4 groups which were respectively subjected to hot air at 46℃, 49℃, 52℃ and 55℃ for 1 to 4 hours. Samples were taken after being stored at 1℃ for 1, 2 or 3 months and then returned to room temperature for 2 days. Respiration, ethylene release rates, fruit sugar, color and firmness of fruits were measured. Results indicated the fruits which received hot air treatment exhibit inhibitive effect on respiration and ethylene production rate as well as browning of fruits. The fruit firmness was maintained and no significant effect on sugar content was found.
In another experiment, the harvested ‘Fuyu' fruits were treated with with 1-methylcyclopropene (1 ppm) at room temperature (25℃) for 8 hours and then treated with hot air at 52℃ for 3 hours. After hot air treatment, the fruit was loosely sealed and stored for a period of 3 months at 1±0.5℃. Total phenolic compound, ACC, ion leakage, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenoloxidase activities were analyzed. Results showed those persimmons which were subjected to hot air treatment had lower PAL activity. Total phenolic compound, ACC content as well as ion leakage was also significantly reduced as compared with the control. However, no significant change in polyphenoloxidase activity was observed.
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