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標題: 重瓣長壽花之雜交育種
The Hybridization of Kalanchoe with double flower.
作者: 鄭怡婷
Cheng, Yi-Ting
關鍵字: Pollen germination;花粉發芽率;Seeds germination;Plant selection;inheritance of petals number;種子發芽率;單株選拔;重瓣遺傳
出版社: 園藝學系所
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本試驗以長壽花之單瓣品種 ‘Isabella’、‘Simon’、‘Gimi’、‘Bee’、‘燈塔’、‘日出’,重瓣品種‘Hayworth’、‘La Douce’、‘Leonardo’、‘Bardot’、‘Bassey’、 ‘Loren’、‘Cher’、‘Sorvino’、‘Cardinale’、‘Gabrielle’、‘Mona’、‘Karen’、‘Jodie’、 ‘Kelly’、‘Yazmin’及重瓣之雜交品系‘Gi x Hay 95-1’、‘Gi x Hay 95-2’、‘Gi x Hay 95-3’、 ‘Gi x Hay 95-7’、 ‘Gi x Hay 95-12’、 ‘Gi x Hay 95-17’等為材料,進行花粉活力檢定,與單、重瓣品種間相互雜交、並探討單重瓣特性及花瓣數目等性狀之遺傳。期能了解重瓣之遺傳特性並選育出優良之重瓣子代。
長壽花重瓣品種在5%蔗糖的BK培養基中25℃下培養兩小時,以‘Mona’花粉發芽率最高,可達到20.7% ,其次是‘Kelly’18.2% 。單瓣品種‘Gimi’花粉發芽率較高可達30.8%,而‘日出’之花粉在試驗條件下則無法發芽。
在重瓣品種自交的試驗中,除了‘La Douce’以外‘Hayworth’、‘Leonardo’、 ‘Kelly’、‘Gabrielle’、‘Yazmin’以及‘Mona’之自交皆能結種,其中以‘Kelly’的結種率最高達75.8%。‘Gabrielle’、‘Mona’雖也獲得種子,但種子不發芽。以‘Isabella’為母本與‘Hayworth’、‘Leonardo’或‘La Douce’雜交時,結種率分別為11.5%、5.8%或5.9%,種子發芽率分別為45.7%、44.2%或10.6%。在反交的部分以‘Isabella’為父本與‘Hayworth’或‘Leonardo’雜交結種率分別為2.5%或5.2%。種子發芽率為42.3%或50.8%。以‘La Douce’為母本與‘Isabella’ 雜交則沒有種子。
‘Leonardo’和‘Gimi × Hayworth 95-12’自交S1子代外表型單重瓣分離比不符合預期7:9,其餘重瓣品種自交後產生之S1子代,經由χ2檢測皆符合預期7:9 之分離比。單瓣品種 ‘Gimi’自交S1、或Gimi × Bee、Isabella × Leonardo或 Isabella × La Douce雜交中選出的F1單瓣子代再自交,子代皆為單瓣。重瓣自交的後代中會出現少數畸形花,但在單、重瓣雜交之後代並沒有畸形花出現。
花瓣數之調查發現,單、重瓣雜交,如: Isabella × Hayworth、Hayworth × Isabella或重瓣自交,如: ‘Hayworth’自交S1或‘Hayworth’自交S2之子代,除了單瓣株外,其餘重瓣株(花瓣數>5)之花瓣數呈現可能為數量遺傳的特性。本試驗共選拔出共六株株型緊密,分枝性良好,葉片較厚,小花數量多之優良單株。

In this research, Kalanchoes cultivars single type: ‘Isabella’, ‘Simon’, ‘Gimi’, ‘Bee’, ‘Beacon’, ‘Sunrise’ and double type: ‘Hayworth’, ‘La Douce’, ‘Leonardo’, ‘Bardot’, ‘Bassey’, ‘Loren’, ‘Cher’, ‘Sorvino’, ‘Cardinale’, ‘Gabrielle’, ‘Mona’, ‘Karen’, ‘Jodie’, ‘Kelly’, ‘Yazmin’ were subjected to pollen viability test, cross between cultivars and investigate flower characteristics of offsprings to understand the inheritance of flower types, petal number for breeding double kalanchoes.
At 25℃, double-type kalanchoe ‘Mona’ pollen cultured on the medium containing 5% sucrose, the germination rate was as high as 20.7%, followed with ‘Kelly’ of (18.2%). The pollen germination rate of single Kalanchoe ‘Gimi’ was 30.8% however, pollens of ‘Sunrise’ did not germinate.
Seeds could be obtained of ‘La Douce’, ‘Hayworth’, ‘Leonardo’, ‘Kelly’, ‘Gabrielle’, ‘Yazmin’ and ‘Mona’ by self crossing but seeds of ‘Gabrielle’ and ‘Mona’ could did not germinate. The seeding rate of ‘Isabella’ crossed with ‘Hayworth’ , ‘Leonardo’ or ‘La Douce’ was 11.5%, 5.8% or 5.9%, respectively. As well as seed germination was 45.7%、44.2% or 10.6%, respectively. The seeding rate of ‘Hayworth’or ‘Leonardo’crossed with ‘Isabella’ was 2.5% or 5.2%, respectively. The seed germination rate was 42.3% or 50.8%, respectively. However, no seed was found in ‘La Douce’ crossed to ‘Isabella’.
Except of ‘Leonardo’ and ‘Gimi × Hayworth 95-12’, the flower type distribution of selfed S1 populations the double type to single type ratio was 7:9 as expected. All offsprings in the population from selfed single type or mutual crossings were all single type and the ratio of single type to double type was 1:0. Crossing of two double type cultivars produced several plants with abnormal flower type. However, all plants were normal in the F1 from crossing of single type and double type. The progenies of double type plants showed wide ranges of petal number (8~96). The single flower type of kalanchoe was controlled by major genes. Distribution of petal number in the selfed S2 of double type suggested that its petal number was controlled by multiple genes.
In this research six compact and branching plants with thick leaves and more flowers of marketing potential were selected.
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