Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29123
標題: 熱處理對‘台農二號’番木瓜果實品質及抗氧化能力之影響
Effect of Heat Treatment on the Quality and Antioxidant Capacity of 'Tainung NO. 2' Papaya Fruit
作者: 黃偉峻
Huang, Wei-Jyun
關鍵字: ‘Tainung NO. 2' papaya fruit;‘台農二號’番木瓜;Vapor heat treatment;Hot water showring treatment;Antioxidant capacity;蒸熱處理;熱水沖淋處理;抗氧化能力
出版社: 園藝學系所
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摘要: 
台灣為東方果實蠅之疫區,因此番木瓜外銷日本須經蒸熱檢疫處理後,方可運銷。然而於貯運、販售的過程中果實容易發生病害,故有必要採取適當之方法加以控制。因此,本試驗之目的在於探討溫湯處理搭配蒸熱處理,對果實品質之影響,期望能降低採後病害所引起之損耗問題。並進一步探討溫湯處理後經不同放置時間再蒸熱處理對抗氧化能力之影響。最後,探討熱水沖淋處理對番木瓜病害控制之可行性,期望能作為替代較高成本的溫湯處理之方法。
溫湯結合蒸熱處理之試驗於9月份至6月份進行,試驗共進行七次。番木瓜果實先經57℃溫湯處理1.5分鐘後,於常溫下放置0至24小時再進行蒸熱處理。隨著溫湯處理後放置時間的增加,Fv/Fm值有愈高的趨勢,尤其以溫湯後放置24小時再進行蒸熱處理之果實, Fv/Fm值較高。溫湯後放置18及24小時後再進行蒸熱之處理,果實轉色較佳,病害發生率及病害程度也較低。溫湯後放置時間短於12小時以下時,果實容易發生轉色障礙,對病害控制的效果也較差。整體而言,溫湯搭配蒸熱處理之果實經低溫貯藏並催熟後,以及於常溫放置3天後,對果肉硬度及全可溶性固形物含量影響不大。一般來說,溫湯後放置18小時或24小時再進行蒸熱處理對果實品質沒有太大的影響,但以放置24小時之處理較方便作為標準處理程序。
7月份與10月份,番木瓜果實經溫湯處理後,於常溫下放置0至24小時,再分析果實中抗氧化能力之變化。結果顯示,溫湯後放置時間較短之果實,果皮的抗氧化能力比放置時間較長的果實來得低,這可能是果實於溫湯後經較長時間放置再蒸熱處理,熱傷害較少而品質較佳的原因之一。7月份利用FRAP法分析果肉抗氧化能力時,溫湯後不同放置時間對果肉的抗氧化能力影響不大,但利用TOSC法分析時卻得到不同的結果,這可能與不同分析方法之反應原理不同有關。
熱水沖淋試驗分為兩個部分。第一部分試驗將番木瓜果實以57℃熱水沖淋10至90秒,探討對果實品質之影響。結果顯示,以57℃熱水沖淋10至70秒對果實轉色與病害無顯著影響,當處理時間延長至90秒時,果實沒有病害,但會有轉色障礙發生。第二部分試驗將番木瓜果實以不同沖淋溫度與時間處理(55至67℃, 20至80秒),探討對果實品質之影響。結果顯示,61℃沖淋20秒對果實傷害較小,果實品質也較佳,應為最有可能替代溫湯處理之方法。

This study evaluated the effect of combination of hot water treatment and vapor heat treatments (VHT) on papaya fruit quality and established a standardized treatment to reduce postharvest disease. It explored the changes in antioxidant capacity when fruit was exposed to different times at room temperature following hot water treatment. Finally, hot water showering treatment (HWST) was observed for its effect on fruit quality and evaluated as a replacement for hot water treatment.

Papaya was harvested seven different times between September and June. They were subjected to the hot water treatment of 57℃ for 1.5 min; and then left at room temperature for 0-24 hours; then underwent vapor heat treatment until fruit center temperature arrived at 47.2℃. It was found that the fruit left at room temperature for longer times had higher Fv/Fm value because it had more time to recover from the hot water treatment. The left of 24 hours before VHT showed the highest Fv/Fm value among all the experimental times. At the end of all the postharvest treatments, it was found that the left of 18 and 24 hours (before VHT) resulted in good peel color while disease incidence and area were low. On the contrary, the left of 0-12 hours (before VHT) showed poor peel color while disease incidence and area were high. Finally, firmness and total soluble solids (°Brix) were not significantly different between 0-24 hour lefts following hot water treatment. In general, there were no significant differences in fruit quality between 18 and 24 hour lefts. However, the 24 hour left was more convenient for standardized treatment.

In July and October, papaya was harvested, treated with hot water, and set at room temperature (recovery time) between 0-24 hours. The results showed that fruit with longer recovery time had lower heat injury and better fruit quality, this may be due to higher antioxidant capacity. In July, the Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) method was used to analyze pulp antioxidant capacity, the result was no significant difference between recovery times, but the Total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) method analysis had different result. That was because of the different principles of reactions used in the different methods.
Papayas were subjected to two sets of HWST experiments. The first was at 57℃ for 10-90 seconds. The results showed that between 10-70 seconds were no significant effects on color change and diseases. However, treatment at 57℃ for 90 seconds showed poor color but no disease. The second set of HWST experiments was composed of different times and temperatures (55-67℃ for 20-80 seconds). The HWST treatment of 61℃ for 20 seconds had low heat injury and retained good quality. The method of HWST of 61℃ for 20 seconds may be used to replace the hot water treatment of 57℃ for 1.5 min.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29123
其他識別: U0005-0207201014504600
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