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標題: 氮源對芭菲爾鞋蘭生長之影響
Effects of Nitrogen on The Growth of Paphiopedilum Orchids
作者: 戴裕森
Dai, Yu-Sem
關鍵字: 有機氮;nitrogen source;無機氮;硝酸還原酶椰纖混合介質;氮代謝;霧氣耕;organic nitrogen;inorganic nitrogen;nitrate reductase;coir mix;nitrogen metabolism;aeroponic culture
出版社: 園藝學系所
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本研究目的在探討Complex type及Maudiae type芭菲爾鞋蘭對氮源的吸收偏好,以及氮源對氮代謝與生長的關係。試驗分為三部分,(一) 椰纖混合介質與樹皮混合介質施用不同型態氮肥對芭菲爾鞋蘭生長之影響。(二) 不同型態氮源於霧氣耕環境下,對芭菲爾鞋蘭之生理反應。(三) 不同型態氮源培養基於器內培養條件下,對芭菲爾鞋蘭之生理反應。
試驗一、使用Complex type芭菲爾鞋蘭種植於2種介質(樹皮混合介質; 椰纖混合介質)及處理4種肥料(Jack,s 2﹝高銨肥﹞; Jack,s 3﹝半量平衡肥﹞; Jack,s 6﹝高硝肥﹞;好康多1號﹝緩釋肥,對照組﹞)。樹皮混合介質中的地上部鮮重及乾重相對生長量與供給的硝態氮比例呈現正相關。且發現經過6個月栽培於椰纖混合介質的植株葉長、葉寬、基部厚,顯著高於樹皮混合介質的植株,足以做為替代性栽培介質。
試驗二、使用Maudiae type芭菲爾鞋蘭於不同型態氮源(全硝﹝ NO3-: NH4+= 100: 0% ; 對照組﹞; 全銨 ﹝NO3-: NH4+= 0:100%﹞; 尿素﹝NO3-:Urea=0:100%﹞)的養液中進行霧耕,檢視芭菲爾鞋蘭的氮同化作用反應。在最長葉長、葉寬方面,以尿素處理高於其他處理。但總鮮重方面,以全硝處理高於其他處理。可溶性蛋白質含量以全硝處理最高,而全銨處理最低。尿素處理的植株根部硝酸還原酶(nitrate reductase activity; NRA)高於全硝處理,而全銨處理的根部NRA最低,且地上部NRA與可溶性蛋白質含量呈現正相關。
試驗三、使用Maudiae type芭菲爾鞋蘭於不同型態氮源 (MS﹝對照組﹞;全銨; 全硝; 馬鈴薯; 酵母萃取物) 培養基中進行器內培養。培養一個月,以酵母萃取物處理的植株地上部及根部NRA、地上部及根部游離胺基酸、地上部可溶性蛋白質,高於其他處理。且處理全硝的地上部生合成了高於其他處理的游離胺基酸含量,以及處理酵母萃取物的地上部具有較全硝處理稍低的游離胺基酸含量及最高的NRA,並且根部具有高於其他處理的游離胺基酸含量及NRA。培養3個月,酵母萃取物處理、全硝處理及MS處理,的地上部平均鮮重顯著高於馬鈴薯處理及全銨處理,後兩種處理之間也達到5%顯著性差異,以酵母萃取物處理為最高,其次為全硝處理,最低為全銨處理。

The objective of this study was to find out the preference of nitrogen source use of the Complex type or Maudiae type Paphiopedilum orchids and to study the nitrogen metabolism as well as growth of the orchids related to the nitrogen sources. Three separate experiments were conducted to find the answer. They are: (1) Growth of the paphiopedilum orchids grown in coir mix or in bark mix with different types of nitrogen in fertilizer. (2) The physiological responses of the paphiopedilum orchids to different types of nitrogen in aeroponic culture solution. (3) The physiological responses of the in vitro paphiopedilum orchids with different nitrogen sources in culture media.
In the experiment 1, Complex type Paphiopedilum grown in 2 mediums (coir mix or bark mix), with 4 fertilizer treatments (Jack,2﹝hight ammonium fertilizer﹞; Jack,3﹝half of balance fertilizer﹞; Jack,6﹝hight nitrate fertilizer﹞;Hi-Control 1﹝slow release fertilizer,Control﹞). The coir mix performed better than the bark mix in relative growth rate(RGR) based on leaf span (LS), leaf width (LW), and thickness of the shoot base (TSB). The influence of four fertilizers were behaved differently in two growing mix. In bark mix, J6 fertilizer (with more nitrate-N) was better for the plant growth. In coir mix, there was not much difference shown in between fertilizer treatments. Better cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the coir mix may be showing better fertilizer retention capacity for the more ammonium-N containing fertilizers than for the more nitrate-N containing fertilizer.
In the experiment 2, different types of nitrogen source(nitrate-N﹝NO3-:NH4+ =100:0%; Control﹞; ammonia-N﹝NO3-:NH4+=0:100%﹞; urea-N﹝NO3-:urea=0:100%﹞) in solution used in aeroponic culture of Maudiae type paphiopedilum plants, with check to nitrogen assimilation responses of paphiopedilum orchids. The urea-N was doing better for leaf length (LL) and leaf width (LW). The nitrate-N solution culture had most growth in the fresh weight. The nitrate reductase activity (NRA) was highest in the nitrate-N treated roots, but was lowest in the ammonia-N treated roots. For all treatments, shoot NRA was positively correlated with soluble protein content in the shoot.
In the experiment 3, different types of nitrogen source(MS﹝Control﹞; NH4+ -N; NO3--N; Potato; Yeast extract) in mediums used in vitro culture Maudiae type pahiopedilum plantlets. After 1 month culture, the highest NRA in shoot and the highest NRA in root, were found in Yeast Extract treated plants. Those plants also had highest free amino acid in both shoot and root, and the shoot soluble protein was the most among all treatment. After 3 month culture, the shoot fresh weight for five N treatments were ranked as Yeast Extract > Nitrate-N > potato > MS-N > Ammonia-N.
We concluded with a preference use of nitrate-N for the paphiopedilum orchids plants. And this orchid may has the ability to use organic nitrogen directly in vitro.
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