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標題: 椰纖作為番茄無土栽培介質可行性之評估
Studies on the Feasibility of Coconut Fiber as Growing Substrate for Soilless Culture Tomato
作者: 吳黃清雲
關鍵字: tomato;番茄;coconut fiber;peat moss;椰纖;泥炭土
出版社: 園藝學系所
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農友301番茄(Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. “Known You” 301)以不同比例介質栽培於台灣國立中興大學玻璃溫室,介質混合如下:C100(100%椰纖土)、CP75(75%椰纖土+25%泥炭土)、CP50(50%椰纖土+50%泥炭土)、CP25(25%椰纖土+75%泥炭土)及P100(100%泥炭土)。試驗採完全逢機設計(CRD),每處理24株,三重複,每日進行養液澆灌,養液pH5.8~6.0,EC值2.5~3.0 (dS/m)。
生育前期先進行土壤分析,包括總體密度、總孔隙度、保水力、充氣孔隙度、粒徑分析。土壤分析結果,介質總體密度介於0.11~0.17 g/cm3、總孔隙度為91.83~95.43%、保水力31.23~52.71%、充氣孔隙度42.72~60.61%。粗粒徑的介質佔7.76~22.88%,C100的介質則含有較多0.5~2.0mm的顆粒,占19.41%,為所有處理中最高。定植80天後介質pH介於4.6~6.1、EC 2.8~3.6 (dS/m)。
試驗期間,自定植天數(DAT)第0天開始,每10天每處理隨機取3處介質進行介質養分、pH及EC之分析,至第80天止。測得pH 4.6~6.1,EC 2.8~3.6 (dS/m)。P100的氮含量介於1.05~1.22%、磷含量0.02~0.04%;C100的鉀含量介於1.23~1.28%、鎂含量0.13~0.17%;CP25鈣含量為2.39~2.69%。
番茄果實分析項目包括可溶性固形物(°Brix)、果實硬度、維他命C含量(%)、果皮厚度、果實大小。CP75之果實品質最佳,可溶性固形物含量達5.58°Brix、維他命C含量22.5 mg/100g鮮重、硬度1.98 kg/cm2。植株高度以CP25及P100較高,分別為168.92及167.50 cm;CP75葉數最多,可達24.67片,平均果重84.25g。CP75、CP25、P100之果實平均產量分別為每平分公尺41.88、47.30、56.71 kg。


Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), hybrid cv. Known You 301 (Known You seed company), were grown in greenhouse at the National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan in different substrates as follows: C100 (100% coconut fiber); CP75 (75%coconut fiber + 25% peat moss); CP50 (50% coconut fiber + 50% peat moss); CP25 (25% coconut fiber + 25% peat moss) and of P100 (100% peat moss). The experiment consisted of a completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 replicates, in which each replicate consisted of 24 plants. The tomato plants were supplied by nutrient solution everyday with pH value 5.8 to 6.0 and EC value 2.5 to 3.0.
The media from different ratio of substrates were collected every ten days and measured pH, EC. Bulk density, total porosity, container capacity, air- fill porosity and particle density were investigated at previous growing stage. Bulk density was ranged from 0.11 to 0.17 g/cm3. Total porosity was between 91.83 and 95.43%. The container capacity was ranged from 31.23 to 52.71% and air- fill porosity was ranged from 42.72 to 60.61%. The particle size was distributed between 7.76 and 22.88 % in coarse content and C100 medium substrate was highest in value of 19.41% with particle size ranged from 0.5 to 2.0 mm. The pH value at 80 days after transplanting was ranged from 4.6 to 6.1 and EC value was between 2.8 and 3.6.
The nutrient content of medium was estimated from 0 to 80 days after transplanting. Nitrogen and phosphorus content of P100 medium were 1.05 - 1.22% and 0.02 - 0.04%, respectively. Potassium content of C100 medium was ranged from 1.23 to 1.28% of and from 0.13 to 0.17% of magnesium content. CP25 medium substrate had calcium content 2.39 to 2.69%.
The nutrient content in leaves and stem were determined at 30, 60 and 85 days after transplanting. The nitrogen content in stem of P100 medium substrate at 30 DAT was highest with value of 3.0%. For C100 and P100 substrate, the phosphorus content in leaves at 85 days was 0.5%. The potassium content in stem of C100 substrate at 85 DAT was 4.63%. It was indicated that the potassium content was high accumulation in stem compared with in leaves. There were no significant differences in calcium content in stem between the plants grown in different substrates. However, calcium content in leaves of P100 substrate was ranged from 4.05 to 4.65%. The magnesium content in leaves at 85 days was 0.74% observed in C100 substrate. The micro elements of nutrient such iron, copper, zinc and manganese were increased C100 substrate during 85 days.
Tomato fruits were used for measurement the content of soluble solid (oBrix), fruit firmness, vitamin C (%), pericarp thickness and fruits size. The highest of plant height was obtained from CP25 substrate (168.92 cm) and P100 substrate (167.50 cm), respectively. The highest of leaf number was shown in CP75 substrate with 24.67 leaves. The mean of fruit weight in CP75 substrate was 84.25g per fruit. The mean of fruit yield per meter square in CP75, CP25 and P100 substrate were 41.88 kg; 47.30 kg and 56.71 kg, respectively. In the same way, the highest quality as soluble solid (5.58 0Brix), vitamin C (22.50 mg per 100g) and fruit firmness (1.98 kg/ cm2) was obtained from CP75 substrate.
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