Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29191
標題: 香蕉後熟後品質之改進及軸腐病之防治
Improvement of Quality after ripening and Control of Crown Rot of Banana
作者: 張慧竹
Chang, Hui-Chu
關鍵字: modified atmosphere packaging;氣變包裝;fruit quality;crown rot;banana;果實品質;軸腐病;香蕉
出版社: 園藝學系所
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摘要: 
臺灣栽培之‘北蕉’(‘Giant cavendish’),為外銷主要品種,其果形、風味俱佳,深受內外銷市場歡迎。近年來香蕉外銷日本數量逐年減少,經主要的出口國日本市場調查發現,臺灣香蕉品質落差大,運輸過程引起不良品較其他國家為多。欲使外銷市場能穩定供給消費者,於海運與通關檢疫時間之外,須能維持一週的庫存供應量,因此,自採收後需能維持21天不轉色黃熟之貯藏壽命。本研究以北蕉為材料,擬在不破壞原有處理技術與品質的情況下,尋求適當且對人體無害之化學藥劑與包裝方式,以期能延長香蕉外銷貯運期間及儲架壽命,並解決貯運過程中果實轉色黃熟及果軸褐化腐爛之問題。
結果顯示,‘北蕉’香蕉在分成2-3指為一小把,並以打孔聚乙烯(PE)塑膠袋包裝處理,其生理斑點較不分把無包裝之對照組細小而多,且分布均勻,且可避免失水徵狀,平均轉色指數於催熟後0天增加1.0,2-3天後降低0.8-1.0。包裝處理之果軸腐爛指數提高0.6,而殺菌劑處理使之降低0.7-0.8。使用草酸、艾維激素、阿斯匹靈、果蠟、石灰水、酒精等不同藥劑進行處理,其中以艾維激素300 ppm浸泡4分鐘之處理效果最佳,催熟後4天果軸腐爛指數降低1.4。果蠟處理於貯藏及催熟後,轉色指數分別增加0.6、0.8;阿斯匹靈100倍浸泡4分鐘,和果蠟塗抹果軸切口處理,貯藏後之果軸腐爛指數各增加1.2、2.4,對香蕉果實貯藏有不良影響。
外包裝方式以打孔高密度聚乙烯(HDPE)塑膠袋、HDPE塑膠袋密封、HDPE塑膠袋密封+乙烯吸收劑,和HDPE塑膠袋密封+真空等處理,於13℃貯藏21天後皆可抑制轉色指數,分別減少0、2.0、1.4、0.2;但是只有HDPE塑膠袋密封+乙烯吸收劑處理,可使果軸腐爛指數降低0.6,最為理想。將果軸切片分別以1%氯化鈉+1%檸檬酸、次氯酸鈉5倍稀釋液,浸泡4分鐘,和真空等處理後,於室溫下通以加濕空氣,觀察其褐化腐爛現象。結果顯示各項處理皆可抑制腐爛,分別降低0.4-1.0、0.2-0.6,和0.2-1.8。效果最佳為氯化鈉+檸檬酸,除可抑制菌絲生長之外,還可減輕褐化徵狀。而真空處理雖可抑制發霉現象,但對於褐化的改善效果有限。

‘Cavendish'(‘Giant Cavendish'), the major variety for exporting, cordially welcomed to domestic and oversea consumers, because of its superb shape and wonderful flavor. For the past years, banana fruits exported to Japan decreasingly. The investigation into Japanese market, the chief vendee, revealed that not only the unstable quality of banana fruits grown in Taiwan, but also there were more defectives produced during shipping process than in other countries. In order to supply the export market steadily with fine-quality commodities, we needs a week more for the market supply, except for the time of shipping, customs clearance, and quarantine. After harvesting, we must keep the bananas from coloring and ripening for 21-day storage life. The materials of this experiment were ‘Giant Cavendish' banana fruits. We wished to seek the adequate chemicals and package to prolong the storage life during delivery period and the shelf life of exported banana fruits, and on condition that there were no unhealthy influences on the original processing technology and quality, and the problems of fruits ripening and decay from crown rot during storage and delivery period could be resolved.
The results show that, ‘Cavendish' banana fruits, cut into 2-3 fingers as a wisp, packed with the perforated polyethylene(PE)plastic bags showed smaller, more, and evenly distributed senescence spots than the controled group without packing. After 21-day storage and being ripened, banana fruits packed with perforated PE avoided water loss and increased color changing by 0.8-1.0 after storage and ripening. However, the perforated PE wispy packing exacerbated the decay index by 0.6, while the fungicide treatment receded by 0.7-0.8. Oxalic acid, ReTain, aspirin, wax, lime water, and alcohol, were used to treat banana fruits. The best treatment was dipped in ReTain 300 ppm for 4min reduced the decay index by 1.4. The treatment of wax(brushed on incisions)promoted color index by 0.6 and 0.8 after storage and ripening. And, the treatments of aspirin 100-fold diluted(dipped for 4min)and Wax(brushed on incisions)increased decay index after storage by 1.2 and 2.4. Both treatments above had negative impact for storage of banana fruits.
Banana fruits, packaged with perforated high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic bags, HDPE plastic bag sealed, HDPE plastic bag sealed+ethylene absorbent, and HDPE plastic bag sealed+vacuum, stored at 13 ℃ for 21 days, could reduce color index by 0, 2.0, 1.4, 0.2. But only being packaged with HDPE plastic bag+ethylene absorbed had reduced decay index by 0.6. The fruit stem sections dipped with 1% citric acid + 1% sodium chloride, or 5-fold sodium hypochlorite for 4 minutes, or treated with vacuum, and then ambient humidified and ventilated at room temperature, to observe the browning and decay. All the treatments above could reduced decay index by 0.4-1.0, 0.2-0.6, and 0.2-1.8 each. The optimum treatment was sodium chloride+citric acid which could inhibit the growth of hypha, could also reduce the browning. Although the vacuum treatment could inhibit the mildew, the improvements on browning were limited.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29191
其他識別: U0005-2107201014143400
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

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