Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/2922
標題: 銅銲線製程影響介金屬化合物覆蓋率之研究
Research for the Effects of Copper Wire Bonding Process on Coverage of Intermetallic Compounds
作者: 葉孟宏
Yeh, Meng-Hung
關鍵字: 銅線;Cu wire;介金屬;介金屬覆蓋;銲線參數;IMC;IMC Coverage;Wire Bonding Parameter
出版社: 機械工程學系所
引用: [1] 呂宗興,“電子構裝技術的發展歷程”,工業材料,Vol. 115,1996。 [2] J. Hirota, K. Machida, T. Okuda, M. Shimotomai, and R. Kawanaka, “The Development of Copper Wire Bonding for Plastic Molded Semiconductor Packages,” Proceedings of the 35th Electronic Components Conference, Washington, D.C., May 20–22, pp. 116–121, 1985. [3] J. Kurtz, D. Cousens, and M. Dufour, “Copper Wire Ball Bonding,” Proceedings of the 34th Electronic Components Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, May 14–16, pp. 1–5, 1984. [4] K. Atsumi, T. Ando, M. Kobayashi, and O. Usuda, “Ball Bonding Technique for Copper Wire,” Proceedings of the 36th Electronic Components Conference, Washington, May 5–7, pp. 312–317, 1986. [5] L. Levine and M. Shaeffer, “Copper Ball Bonding,” Semiconductor International, Aug., pp. 126–129, 1986. [6] J. Onuki, M. Koizumi, and I. 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[11] C.J. Hang, C.Q. Wang, Y.H. Tian, M. Mayer, and Y. Zhou, “Microstructural Study of Copper Free Air Balls in Thermosonic Wire Bonding”, Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 85, No. 8, pp. 1815-1819, 2008. [12] H. Xu, C. Liu, V. V. Silberschmidt and H. Wang, “Effects of Process Parameters on Bondability in Thermosonic Copper Ball Bonding,” Proceedings of the 58th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTE2008), Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA, May 27-30, pp. 1424-1430, 2008. [13] N. Srikanth, J. Premkumar, M. Sivakumar, Y. M. Wong and C. J. Vath, III, “Effect of wire purity on copper wire bonding,” Proceedings of the 9th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, Singapore, pp. 755-759, 10-12, Dec. 2007. [14] A. Shah, M. Mayer, Y. N. Zhou, S. J. Hong, and J. T. Moon, “Low-Stress Thermosonic Copper Ball Bonding,” IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 176 – 184, 2009. [15] A. Shah, M. Mayer, Y. Zhou, J. Persic and J. T. Moon, “Optimization of Ultrasound and Bond Force to Reduce Pad Stress in Thermosonic Cu Ball Bonding,” Proceedings of the 2009 11th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, Singapore, Dec. 9-11, pp. 10-15, 2009. [16] H. J. Kim, J. Y. Lee, K. W. Paik, K. W. Koh, J. Won, S. Choe, J. Lee, J. T. Moon, and Y. J. Park, “Effects of Cu/Al Intermetallic Compound (IMC) on Copper Wire and Aluminum Pad Bondability,” IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 367-374, 2003. [17] M. Drozdov, G. Gur, Z. Atzmon, and W. D. Kaplan, “Detailed Investigation of Ultrasonic Al–Cu Wire-Bonds: I. Intermetallic Formation in the As-Bonded State”, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 43, No. 18, pp. 6029-6037, 2008. [18] M. Drozdov, G. Gur, Z. Atzmon, and W. D. Kaplan, “Detailed Investigation of Ultrasonic Al–Cu Wire-Bonds: II. Microstructural Evolution during Annealing,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 43, No. 18, pp. 6038-6048, 2008. [19] C. J. Hang, C. Q. Wang, M. Mayer, Y. H. Tian, Y. Zhou and H. H. Wang, “Growth Behavior of Cu/Al Intermetallic Compounds and Cracks in Copper Ball Bonds during Isothermal Aging,” Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 416-424, 2008. [20] C. J. Hang, W. H. Song, I. Lum, M. Mayer, Y. Zhou, C. Q. Wang, J. T. Moon and J. Persic, “Effect of Electronic Flame Off Parameters on Copper Bonding Wire: Free-Air Ball Deformability, Heat Affected Zone Length, Heat Affected Zone Breaking Force,” Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 86, No. 10, pp. 2094-2103, 2009. [21] H. Xu, C. Liua, V.V. Silberschmidt, S.S. Pramana, T.J. White and Z. Chen, “A Re-Examination of the Mechanism of Thermosonic Copper Ball Bonding on Aluminum Metallization Pads,” Scripta Materialia, Vol. 61, No. 2, pp. 165-168, 2009. [22] G. Harman, Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill Professional, New York, USA, 2010. [23] I. Singh, J.Y. On, L. Levine, “Enhancing Fine Pitch, High I/O Devices with Copper Ball Bonding,” Proceedings of the 55th Electronic Component and Technology Conference (ECTC2005), May 31 – June 3, pp. 843-847, Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA, 2005. [24] S. Murali, N. Srikanth, and C. J. Vath III, “Grains, Defrmation Substructures, and Slip Bands Observed in Thermosonic Copper Ball Bonding,” Materials Characteristics, Vol. 50, pp. 39-50, 2003. [25] H.J. Kim, J. Y. Lee, K. W. Paik, K.W. Koh, J. Won, S. Choe, J. Lee, J.T. Moon and Y. J. Park, “Effects of Cu/Al Intermetallic Compound (IMC) on Copper Wire and Aluminum Pad Bondability,” IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 367-374, 2003. [26] Y. Funamizu and K. Watanabe, “Interdiffusion in the Al-Cu System,” Transactions of the Japan Institute of Metals, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 147-152, 1971. [27] Y.H. Lu, Y. W. Wang, B. K. Appelt, Y. S. Lai, and C. R. Kao. ”Growth of CuAl Intermetallic Compounds in Cu and Cu(Pd) Wire Bonding,” Proceedings of the 61th Electronic Component and Technology Conference (ECTC2011), May 31 – June 3, Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA, pp. 1481-1488, 2011. [28] T. Uno, “Bond Reliability under Humid Environment for Coated Copper Wire and Bare Copper Wire,” Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 148-156, 2011. [29] http://www.kns.com/en-us/Pages/Home.aspx [30] ASTM International, Test Method For Destructive Shear Testing Of Ball Bonds, ASTM F1269-89(1995)e1, American Society for Testing of Materials, 1995.
摘要: 
本研究主要是探討在銲線製程中第一銲點參數設定摩擦開啟與否,以及不同的銲針表面處理,對銅球與鋁墊間的介金屬化合物之覆蓋率與覆蓋面積間的影響,以及其他銲線製程中所必須確認的品質性進行差異分析,最終確認在信賴性條件後是否能有效的改善因介金屬不良所造成的失效比率。
由實驗結果可得到,當第一銲點參數設定為摩擦開啟時可得較佳的介金屬覆蓋率與覆蓋面積,介金屬的覆蓋面積增加10%;且在鋁擠出在X/Y方向皆是均勻擠出,減小鋁擠出大小2%;銅球推力平均克數增加1g。而使用粗糙面銲針可得最佳的介金屬覆蓋率與覆蓋面積,介金屬的覆蓋面積增加10%與覆蓋率增加6%,銅球推力平均克數增加2g,此兩種設定皆可獲得較平坦的銅球底部。
最後觀察其信賴性影響,當第一銲點參數設定摩擦開啟時,與選用粗糙面銲針,因改善了介金屬覆蓋率與覆蓋面積,代表銅球與鋁墊能確實接和,所以在信賴性的失效的結果有效提升其壽命(由HAST 96hrs提升至HAST 244hrs)。

In this thesis, we are focusing on the coverage rate and area of the inter-metallic compounds (IMC) during copper wire bonding process, effect by the setting of the scrub on/off mode in 1st bond process and the surface quality of the capillary. Also, other required bonding process qualities are being analyzed. Finally, reliability test is being conducted to verify the improvement of the failure rate due to poor inter-metallic compounds.
From the experimental results, it is found that as the 1st bond parameter is setting at the scrub on mode, a better IMC coverage rate and area can be expected. The IMC area increases 10%. A uniform aluminum splash along X and Y direction is found with the splash decreases 2%. And the average copper ball pulling force increase 1 g. When a rough surface capillary is selected, the IMC coverage rate and area have increased 10% and 6% respectively. While the average copper ball pulling force has increased 2 g. In both setting, a flat copper ball bottom is achieved.
Finally, due to the improvement of IMC coverage rate and area, the copper ball and aluminum pad can bond tight and hence reduce failure rate on the reliability test (the HAST results is increased from 96 hours to 244 hours).
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/2922
其他識別: U0005-2008201317590700
Appears in Collections:機械工程學系所

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