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Discussing Reasons Why Visitors do not Participate in Personnel Interpretation and Its Corresponding Strategies - A Case Study of Yangmingshan National Park
近年來全球資源減少，自然林地、動植物、特殊物種等不可回覆的資源逐漸消失，台灣的生態環境也受全球化的影響而產生改變。環境的教育是最有效的方式之一，解說是最直接的方式也最容易傳達的。前人研究發現國內遊客偏愛的解說媒介是解說員，加上解說員是可以傳遞環境保育最好的方式之一，又為遊憩區遊客偏好的主要選擇。然而從遊憩活動中發現，參加解說員的導覽活動人數偏少，是否因有阻礙因素的存在之故，此乃瞭解本研究探討之重點。過去有許多關於阻礙的相關研究而許多研究休閒阻礙面向皆是以Crawford和Godbey（1987）的三個構面為主，分別為(一)個人內在阻礙(Intrapersonal Constraints)、(二)人際間的阻礙(Interpersonal Constraints)、(三)結構性阻礙(Structural Constraints)。就解說的角地而言遊客參與人員解說活動的阻礙因素是否與休閒阻礙面向有雷同? 乃為本研究欲了解之處。
Environmental education is one of the most effective ways to protect environment that has dramatically been changed for last few decades because of overusing and decreasing resources. In the field of environmental education, it is said that interpretation plays a critical role in protecting the ecological environment of Taiwan. Among interpretative media, personnel interpretation has been proved as one of the most preferred media for its quick response, direct information provision, and vivid interaction with visitors. However, the frequency and number of visitors who participating in personnel interpretation is not as high as it is expected in reality. It is doubted if there exists constraints in participating the personnel interpretation and what specific constraints might be. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to find out reasons why visitor not participating personnel interpretation and its corresponding strategies.
The study used both qualitative and qualitative methods to obtain the required data. First of all, the study adopted depth interviews to explore factors why visitors did not participate in the personnel interpretation and strategies which interpretative volunteers might use to correspond with the interpretative constraints. As a result, the study obtained 42 constrained factors and 32 corresponding strategies. Then, the study used questionnaire survey and convenient sampling method to obtain opinions from visitors in Yangmingshan National Park. In total, 394 valid samples were obtained. The descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and canonical correlation analysis were used to analyze data and examine research hypotheses. The major findings are described as followings.
By performing factor analyses for both 42 constrained factors and 32 corresponding strategies, the study extracted 5 constrained factors including “intrapersonal factor”, “time and opportunity factor”, “external environment factor”, “companion's influences factor”, and “interpreter factor”. The study also extracted 5 strategic factors including “diversified interpretation”, “customizing interpretation”, “interactive interpretation”, “experiencing interpretation”, and “incentive interpretation”. By performing confirmatory factor analysis, the result showed that the construct reliability and validity of constrained factors were reasonably accepted. By performing canonical correlation analysis, the result indicated that customizing interpretation strategy can be used to mitigate the possibilities of constrained factors such as time and opportunity factor, external environment factor, and interpreter factor. Furthermore, strategies of diversified interpretation, interactive interpretation, and experiencing interpretation can be used to alleviate the possibility of intrapersonal constrained factor.
Based upon the research findings, the study proposed practical suggestions for using appropriate strategies to solve interpretive predicament and enhance visitors' participation in interpretive program in order to achieve the goal of sustainable environment. Moreover, the study also mentioned suggestions for future studies.
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