Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29286
標題: 果實生理劣變症狀與砧木、施鈣及貯藏溫度對‘金煌’芒果品質之影響
Effects of Rootstocks, Calcium Application, and Storage Temperatures on the Physiological Disorder and Quality of 'Chiin Hwang' (Mangifera indica L.) Mango Fruits
作者: 陳蓓真
Chen, Pei-Jen
關鍵字: 金煌;‘Chiin Hwang';芒果;生理劣變;施鈣;砧木;葉綠素螢光;Mango;Physiology disorder;Calcium application;Rootstock;Chlorophyll fluorescence
出版社: 園藝學系
摘要: 
‘金煌’芒果果肉不同生理劣變病徵之表現,不同劣變型態其主要誘導原因可能不同,其中白塊、凝膠果肉及軟鼻病可能與果實各部位後熟速率不一致有關,而導致果肉中澱粉及可溶性糖之轉換發生異常,並引起無氧呼吸而對果肉產生傷害。點狀壞疽及塊狀壞疽其過氧化酵素電泳條帶表現較其它症狀明顯,可能與果肉局部缺鈣,加速細胞崩解而導致褐變有關。而‘金煌’芒果嫁接至7個不同砧木品種後,以‘金煌’、‘台農一號’為砧木者,生長勢強健,而開花結果率以嫁接‘本地種’最高,不同砧木品種對‘金煌’接穗葉片鈣濃度在2003及2004年分別以‘聖心’、‘海頓’、‘金煌’及‘愛文’、‘紅龍’、‘台農一號’較高,其它無機元素則無顯著差異,整體而言以‘聖心’、‘台農一號’為砧木者礦物營養濃度較高,而以‘海頓’、‘紅龍’較低。在礦物元素吸收方面在果皮及果肉各種無機元素均以嫁接在‘聖心’及‘本地種’者較高。以不同形式鈣肥進行葉面施肥與土壤施肥後,可增加果皮、外層果肉及內層果肉的鈣濃度,並降低果實劣變發生率。另外,於‘金煌’芒果幼果時浸泡氯化鈣溶液處理,對提昇果實鈣濃度方面並無顯著效果,但可降低果實劣變發生率。
‘金煌’芒果寒害症狀主要為果實無法順利進行後熟,在3℃及1℃貯藏之果實會發生寒害,以1℃貯藏者寒害發生率最為嚴重,另外在25℃及15℃貯藏者病害發生率嚴重,故‘金煌’芒果以9℃貯藏溫度較佳。另外,以葉綠素螢光偵測其寒害之發生情形,結果顯示‘金煌’芒果在25℃及15℃貯藏其Fv/Fm隨貯藏時間增加而下降,而貯於12℃、9℃者,貯藏期間維持平穩之變動,但在6℃以下貯藏之果實,Fv/Fm隨貯藏天數之增加呈不規則之波動,故螢光值Fv/Fm變動不大,因此,利用葉綠素螢光反應Fv/Fm之變化,無法反映出果實是否遭受寒害。

The objectives of this study were to investigate the different symptoms of breakdown of fruits, mineral concentrations and graftage of ‘Chiin Hwang' mango. Results indicated that the degeneration was induced by various factors. The symptoms of lumpy, jelly-seed and soft-nose might relate to the different ripening rates of pulp of the mango, thus resulted in a failure in converting starch to soluble sugars and the initiation of the anaerobic respiration, which led to the fruit disorder. The patterns of peroxidase isozymes were the most significant in pitting necrosis and scorched fruits; this could be related to local calcium deficiency and thus triggered cells disintegration. When ‘Chiin Hwang' was grafted onto seedlings of 7 different mango stocks, the vigor was greater for trees on the ‘Chiin Hwang' and ‘Tainnug No.1' stocks, and the percentage of flowering shoots were higher in ‘Local'. The calcium concentration in leaves of ‘Chiin Hwang', which was grafted on seedling of various mango cultivars, was higher in ‘Sensation', ‘Haden', ‘Chiin Hwang' in 2003 but found higher in ‘Iwrin', ‘Red Dragon' and ‘Tainnug No.1' in 2004. In general ‘Chiin Hwang' when grafted on ‘Sensation' and ‘Tainnug No.1', had higher nutrient elements concentration, while those grafted on ‘Haden' and ‘Red Dragon' were found to have lower content. In the peels as well as fruits, the nutrient elements were higher in cultivars grafted on ‘Sensation' and ‘Local', and the physiological disorder was also the lowest in the ‘Local'. Applications of different forms of calcium fertilizers to ‘Chiin Hwang' mango trees, and found the calcium treated mango fruits tended to have higher calcium concentration in the peel, outer and inner pulps and a reduced frequency of the occurrence of physiological disorders. On the other hand, there was no significant increase in the calcium concentrations of fruits while ‘Chiin Hwang' mango was dipped in calcium chloride solution at the early stage of fruit development. However, calcium treated trees had the low rates of fruit disorders.
The main symptom of chilling injury of ‘Chiin Hwang' mango fruits was a failure to ripe. The chilling injury developed when mango fruits were stored at 3 to 1℃, and the damage was the most severe at 1℃. Meanwhile, the occurrences of the diseases were high at 25℃ and 15℃. Therefore, the best storage temperatures for ‘Chiin Hwang' mango fruits were 9℃ to 6℃. In order to evaluate the chilling injury, the chlorophyll fluorescence technique was applied to ‘Chiin Hwang' mango fruits. Results indicated that at 25℃or 15℃, a decrease in Fv/Fm was observed as the time of storage of fruits prolonged, whereas no changed in Fv/Fm when stored at 12℃and 9℃. Irregular variations were detected when fruits stored at temperature lower than 6℃, and the storage time was extended. This seemed to indicate that the changes of Fv/Fm could not be used as the chilling injury index.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29286
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

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