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Effects of Rootstocks, Calcium Application, and Storage Temperatures on the Physiological Disorder and Quality of 'Chiin Hwang' (Mangifera indica L.) Mango Fruits
|關鍵字:||金煌;‘Chiin Hwang';芒果;生理劣變;施鈣;砧木;葉綠素螢光;Mango;Physiology disorder;Calcium application;Rootstock;Chlorophyll fluorescence||出版社:||園藝學系||摘要:||
The objectives of this study were to investigate the different symptoms of breakdown of fruits, mineral concentrations and graftage of ‘Chiin Hwang' mango. Results indicated that the degeneration was induced by various factors. The symptoms of lumpy, jelly-seed and soft-nose might relate to the different ripening rates of pulp of the mango, thus resulted in a failure in converting starch to soluble sugars and the initiation of the anaerobic respiration, which led to the fruit disorder. The patterns of peroxidase isozymes were the most significant in pitting necrosis and scorched fruits; this could be related to local calcium deficiency and thus triggered cells disintegration. When ‘Chiin Hwang' was grafted onto seedlings of 7 different mango stocks, the vigor was greater for trees on the ‘Chiin Hwang' and ‘Tainnug No.1' stocks, and the percentage of flowering shoots were higher in ‘Local'. The calcium concentration in leaves of ‘Chiin Hwang', which was grafted on seedling of various mango cultivars, was higher in ‘Sensation', ‘Haden', ‘Chiin Hwang' in 2003 but found higher in ‘Iwrin', ‘Red Dragon' and ‘Tainnug No.1' in 2004. In general ‘Chiin Hwang' when grafted on ‘Sensation' and ‘Tainnug No.1', had higher nutrient elements concentration, while those grafted on ‘Haden' and ‘Red Dragon' were found to have lower content. In the peels as well as fruits, the nutrient elements were higher in cultivars grafted on ‘Sensation' and ‘Local', and the physiological disorder was also the lowest in the ‘Local'. Applications of different forms of calcium fertilizers to ‘Chiin Hwang' mango trees, and found the calcium treated mango fruits tended to have higher calcium concentration in the peel, outer and inner pulps and a reduced frequency of the occurrence of physiological disorders. On the other hand, there was no significant increase in the calcium concentrations of fruits while ‘Chiin Hwang' mango was dipped in calcium chloride solution at the early stage of fruit development. However, calcium treated trees had the low rates of fruit disorders.
The main symptom of chilling injury of ‘Chiin Hwang' mango fruits was a failure to ripe. The chilling injury developed when mango fruits were stored at 3 to 1℃, and the damage was the most severe at 1℃. Meanwhile, the occurrences of the diseases were high at 25℃ and 15℃. Therefore, the best storage temperatures for ‘Chiin Hwang' mango fruits were 9℃ to 6℃. In order to evaluate the chilling injury, the chlorophyll fluorescence technique was applied to ‘Chiin Hwang' mango fruits. Results indicated that at 25℃or 15℃, a decrease in Fv/Fm was observed as the time of storage of fruits prolonged, whereas no changed in Fv/Fm when stored at 12℃and 9℃. Irregular variations were detected when fruits stored at temperature lower than 6℃, and the storage time was extended. This seemed to indicate that the changes of Fv/Fm could not be used as the chilling injury index.
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