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Identification, Conservation and utilization of Pyrus spp.
|作者:||蔡宗翰||關鍵字:||intrestock;中間砧保存法;Pyrus kawakamii Hayata;台灣野梨||出版社:||園藝學系||摘要:||
台灣產的梨屬Pyrus L.植物，以1911年發表原生的台灣野梨Pyrus kawakamii Hayata。和相當早期引進栽培的台灣鳥梨(8)及橫山梨，以及目前栽培的砂梨Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.)Nakai與陸續不斷引進的各式梨種，使得台灣地區的梨屬植物種類日益複雜。由台灣野梨Pyrus kawakamii Hayata之活模式標本(merotype)，果實1cm；子房3~5室；葉緣鋸齒明顯向前彎曲(crenulate-serrulate)，與型態近似的豆梨Pyrus calleryana Decne和楔葉豆梨Pyrus koehnei C. K. Schneider能夠區別，認為應維持使用Pyrus kawakamii Hayata。「台灣鳥梨」族群枝條褐色；皮孔黃褐色，與嶺南梨Pyrus lindleyi Rehder現存標本枝條黑褐色；皮孔白色有明顯區別。但1994年發表新種Pyrus taiwanensis Iketani & Ohashi Iketani et. Ohashi，經文字敘述、模式標本和採集地標本的三方比對後，認為屬於台灣鳥梨的族群。橫山梨萼片宿存；葉緣無芒尖，而砂梨Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.)Nakai萼片脫落；葉緣有芒尖。而與華南地區的麻梨Pyrus serrulata Rehder果萼和葉緣相同，認為是麻梨與果實5室的栽培種雜交而成，認為應使用Pyrus serrulata Rehder cv. ‘Hangshan’。
One native species and two naturalized species of Pyrus are recognized in Taiwan: Pyrus koehnei C. K. Schneider, which has so far been described as Pyrus kawakamii Hayata since in 1911, “Niauli”, and Pyrus serrulata Rehder cv. “Hangshan”. Because of the type from Pyrus kawakamii Hayata is described as the pome that have 3~5 carpels, and the leaf has crenulate-serrulate margin, can be distinguished with the leaf of Pyrus calleryana Decne which has crenate margin. I treated Pyrus kawakamii Hayata as a independent species. I think Pyrus kawakamii Hayata is conspecific with Pyrus calleryana Decne var. koehnei (Schneider), which has been observed from Tiantai in Zhejiang province in Mainland China. Pyrus taiwanensis Iketani & Ohashi was described as same as Pyrus lindleyi Rehder. By comparing the type of Pyrus taiwanensis Iketani & Ohashi, I need to choose Pyrus taiwanensis Iketani & Ohashi as the name until one day the type of Pyrus lindleyi Rehder can be observed. “Hangshan” pear, whose calyx is persistent and leaf margin is not acute, and is not the same as Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.)Nakai, and Pyrus serrulata Rehder is closer. “Hangshan” pear is possible a hybrid cultivars between Pyrus serrulata Rehder and other cultivars. By the reason, I treat it Pyrus serrulata Rehder cv. “Hangshan”.
During the field research between Pai-Gu mountain and Tai-Du mountain, I have notice several wild pear trees with numerous characters perhaps are because they were grown in wilderness. Furthermore, I have notice the plants that has the looks of the red-leaf character along with the stipulate that has long and narrow shape. Both have an excellent potential in the agricultural industry due to their low level of dormancy.
At last, knowing obtaining all kinds of the original shapes and sizes of the types is not easy during the making process, one would highly recommend save the original looks by digitalization using the scanner with 600 or higher DPI(dots per inch) in order to get the best picture quality during retrieve process.
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