Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29330
標題: 鳳梨果實形質及遺傳相關之研究
Studies on Fruit Characteristic and Genetic Correlation of Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.)
作者: 林榮貴
Lin, Rong-Quey
關鍵字: pineapple(Ananas comosus );鳳梨;Fruit Characteristic;genetic;correlation;RAPD;genetic marker;果實形質;遺傳;相關性;逢機擴大多形性DNA;遺傳標誌基因
出版社: 園藝學系
摘要: 
本研究係以台灣現有的鳳梨品種為材料,探討鳳梨植株性狀、光合成能力及葉片主要元素含量與果實品質之相關,期能利用具有相關的性狀,作為雜交後裔早期選拔的指標,提高育種效率;並利用RAPD分析探討營養系間及品種間的遺傳相似度,尋求可資識別之遺傳標誌,做為雜交後裔選拔的指標。
鳳梨的果實品質因年度、季節、氣候環境而異。本研究鳳梨品種間果實的品質,與嘉義農業試驗分所品系比較試驗的結果相似。
葉片數、葉片總鮮重、總葉面積及地上部植體總鮮重等性狀與果實品質無相關;葉片伸長角度與果實的糖酸比有不太明顯的正相關;最長葉的葉長與果實可滴定酸含量具有不太明顯的負相關,與果實糖酸比之間則有顯著的正相關。
鳳梨的實際光效率及最高光效率,品種間有所差異,以台農13號最高,台農19號、台農6號及Pernambuco較低。鳳梨的葉綠素含量,品種間亦有差異,葉綠素總含量與葉片最高光效率及實際光效率均無相關。實際光效率及最高光效率與果實的品質均無相關;葉綠素總含量與果實品質的相關不明顯,但果實糖度有隨著葉綠素含量而增加的趨勢,糖酸比亦因而提高。
日出前的葉片可滴定酸含量,與實際光效率有某種程度的相關,與最高光效率無相關;日落前的葉片可滴定酸含量,與實際光效率及最高光效率均無相關。日出前與日落後葉片可滴定酸含量的差值,與果實的品質無相關。
鳳梨葉片營養元素的含量因品種而異,葉氮含量與葉綠素總含量之間具有顯著的相關,而葉鎂含量與葉綠素總含量無相關。葉片之氮及磷的含量與果實品質無相關,鉀的含量與果實糖度及可滴定酸含量之間有不明顯的負相關,與果實糖酸比有不明顯的正相關。
葉片鈣的含量與果實糖度的相關不太明顯,但與果實可滴定酸含量具有顯著的負相關,與果實糖酸比有顯著的正相關,鎂的含量與果實的品質則無相關。
利用RAPD分析Smooth Cayenne的7個營養系,結果DNA條帶幾乎相同,得知RAPD無法鑑定Smooth Cayenne的營養系。以同樣的引子進行RAPD分析11個品種,由呈現的條帶可清楚區分為數個叢群,證實RAPD分析可做為鳳梨的品種鑑別之用。
本研究利用RAPD分析台農4~19號的條帶圖譜,繪製成親緣關係之樹狀圖。另外,在OP P10引子的RAPD分析條帶2000 bp的位置上,發現Clone 3607缺少一條明顯的條帶,推測此一條帶與piping type葉型遺傳基因的表現有關。

The research work made use of the current available pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) varieties in Taiwan for the investigation of the characteristics of pineapple plants, capacity of photosynthesis, mineral nutrient content of leaves and its relations with fruit qualities. It was our hope to utilize the related characters as criteria for selecting the desirable hybrid at an early stage of seedling growth and as index for improving the efficiency of plant breeding. In the mean time, RAPD was employed to estimate the genetic similarities among clones and varieties as well as to search for a reliable marker for the selection of hybridized seedlings.
The qualities of pineapple fruits vary with years, seasons and climatic conditions. Results of fruit-quality analyses of different varieties were comparable with those of pineapple-hybridized seedlings line comparative experiments conducted at the Chia-Yi Agricultural Experiment Station.
The characteristics of plant such as leaf numbers, total fresh weights, total leaf areas and total fresh weights of the above ground portion were found to be irrelevant to the fruit qualities. The relationships between the leaf angle and fruit sugar-acid ratio or between the length of the longest leaf and titratable acid of the fruit was insignificant.
The maximum quantum yield and effective quantum yield of pineapple varied among cultivars: highest in Tainung No.13 but lower in Tainung No.19, Tainung No.6 and Pernambuco. Chlorophyll contents also varied among different varieties. The total chlorophyll content related with neither maximum quantum yield nor effective quantum yield, which in turn had no effect on fruit quality. No significant correlation between total chlorophyll content and fruit quality was found. Sugar content tended to increase with increasing chlorophyll concentration, so was the sugar acid ratio(TSS/TA).
The titratable acid of leaves before sunrise was to a certain degree of proportional to the effective quantum yield but with no relations with maximum quantum yield. The titratable acid before sunset was affected neither by the effective quantum yield nor by the maximum quantum yield. The differences in the amount of titratable acids before sunrise and after sunset had no influence upon fruit qualities.
Nutrient elements concentrations of leaves differed among varieties ; nitrogen concentration correlated with total chlorophyll content while magnesium did not. Leaf nitrogen and phosphorus had no effect on fruit quality whereas potassium had negative correlation with fruit sugars and titratable acids. No consistent relationship was found between potassium and fruit sugar-acid ratio.
Leaf calcium showed a significant negative correlation with titratable acids and a positive correlation with sugar-acid ratio but not with fruit sugars. No meaningful relationship was found between magnesium and fruit quality.
RAPD Analysis was used to assay the 7 clones of Smooth Cayenne. Results indicated that bands of DNA obtained were almost identical. In a separate experiment, RAPD was applied to test 11 varieties with same primer, and bands separated could be classified into several clusters. This proves that RAPD can be adopted to identify different varieties of pineapple.
RAPD was also used to map the dendrogram of Tainung No.4 to No. 19, that a family tree could be constructed. Besides, RAPD on the 2,000 bp position of OP P10 primer revealed that Clone 3607 had lost a distinct band. The finding was taken to mean that it resulted in the gene expression of piping leaf characteristic of Clone 3607.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29330
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

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