Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29351
標題: 豌豆、菜豆及豇豆種子固體滲調之研究
Solid Matrix Priming of Pea, Snap Bean, and Asparagus Bean Seeds
作者: 郭宗淵
Kuo, Tsung-Yuan
關鍵字: Solid Matrix Priming;固體滲調;Pea;Snap Bean;Asparagus Bean;Seed;豌豆;菜豆;豇豆;種子
出版社: 園藝學系
摘要: 
〝黑目〞豌豆、〝七寸白雪〞菜豆及〝青莢〞長豇豆種子於15℃下,以蛭石及Agro-Lig進行固體滲調,以改善種子的發芽。滲調條件的決定是藉由種子吸水量、種子及介質特性、滲調期間種子及介質之水分潛勢。
豌豆、菜豆及豇豆種子之初始含水量為15.1%、10.8%及12.2%,種子內碳水化合物及蛋白質二者含量分別佔45.2%、54.1%及55.5%,千粒重以豌豆之359.75g最重,豇豆之119.36g最輕。於介質部分,蛭石之吸水量約達其重量之3倍,Agro-Lig則僅有1倍,Agro-Lig之總體密度、導電度及pH值分別為0.5g/cm3、1.25 mS/cm及4.4,蛭石則分別為0.1g/cm3、0.05mS/cm及7.5。
豌豆、菜豆及豇豆以蛭石進行固體滲調,滲調期間種子吸水量隨添加於介質之水量增加而顯著增加,最高種子含水量分別為51%、46%及53%,已達種子吸水第二階段水量。滲調期間,種子所釋放的二氧化碳量依加水量減少而釋放量減少。添加足夠水量時,種子的水分潛勢值低於介質0.04MPa,並保持一段時間。三作物之滲調種子於25℃下發芽,於豌豆上,處理天數、介質大小及添加水量會顯著影響其平均發芽天數;於菜豆上,處理天數及添加水量對種子之平均發芽天數及GT90-10有顯著的交感作用;於豇豆上,處理天數影響種子之發芽率。
選擇較佳固體滲調條件,於豌豆上,種子:蛭石2號:0.1%NaOCl之重量比為30:15:35,處理2天;於豇豆則為15:15:25,處理3天;菜豆以蛭石3號處理,其條件為20:15:20,處理3天。三作物滲調種子於15℃、25℃及35℃之平均發芽(出土)天數皆被縮短,最多可縮短3.7天。滲調可提高豌豆種子於15℃及35℃之發芽(出土)率,對豇豆種子則可提高於15℃之發芽(出土)率,至少提高24%。
經滲調處理種子於25℃下發芽,三作物種子於吸水第一階段之吸水速度皆加快,於第二階段,豌豆滲調種子增加12小時,菜豆滲調種子則縮短12小時,於豇豆上則不影響。滲調豌豆及豇豆種子之導電度值隨滲調時水量增加而逐漸減少,35g及25g水量處理組顯著較未處理組低20uA/seed/4ml。
瞭解種子之吸水量,調整介質可提供水量,使於滲調期間,種子含水量達吸水第二階段,且種子與介質水分潛勢達到平衡,將有較佳的滲調效果。滲調時,種子之二氧化碳釋放情形可為一滲調效果的指標,滲調後,種子導電度值降低,種子活力被提高,而改善其於逆境下的發芽率及發芽速度。

Solid matrix priming of "Wusui" pea, "Seven-inch snow" snap bean, and "Green-pod" asparagus bean seeds with vermiculites and Agro-Lig at 15℃ improved seed germination. Priming treatment was determinated by water uptake of seeds, characteristics of seeds and media, and water potential of seed and media during priming.
Pea, snap bean, and asparagus bean seeds had 15.1%, 10.8%, and 12.2% moisture content; 45.2%, 54.1%, and 55.5% carbohydrate and protein content. Among the three crops, the weight of one hundred pea seeds was the heaviest at 359.75g and asparagus bean was lightest at 119.36g.
When the vermiculite was saturated by water, the water amount was three times of the weight of the vermiculite. Agro-Lig only needed equal amount of water to be saturated. The bulk density, electrical conductivity and pH of the vermiculite were 0.1g/cm3, 0.05mS/cm, and 7.5; they were 0.5g/cm3, 1.25mS/cm, and 4.4 for Agro-Lig.
The seeds of pea, snap bean, and asparagus bean were primed with the vermiculite. Increasing the amount of water in the vermiculite significantly increased the moisture content of seeds during seed priming. The highest moisture content of primed pea, snap bean, and asparagus bean were 51%, 46%, and 53%, respectively. The water content of seeds was increased to the lag phase. During priming, decreasing the amount of water in the vermiculite significantly reduced the released amount of CO2 among three crops. When the water amount for the seeds of three crops was enough, water potential was achieving and maintaining a near-equilibrium between seeds and vermiculites.
The amount of water, the duration of priming, and the size of vermiculite significantly affected the mean germination days of pea seeds. The mean germination days and GT90-10 of snap bean primed seeds were affected by the interaction between the water amount and the duration of priming. The duration of priming affected the germination percentage of asparagus bean seeds.
Pea seeds were primed by the weight ratio of seed:vermiculite #2:0.1%NaOCl=30:15:35 for two days, when it was 15:15:25 for three days in asparagus bean seeds. Snap bean seeds were primed by the weight ratio of seed:vermiculite #3:0.1%NaOCl=20:15:20 for two days. In three crops, priming reduced the mean germination (emergence) days at 15℃, 25℃, and 35℃. In pea seeds, priming increased the germination (emergence) percentage at 15℃ and 35℃. In asparagus bean seeds, priming increased the germination (emergence) percentage at 15℃.
When seeds of the three crops were imbibed at 25℃, the water absorption rate in the phase I of primed seeds was faster than that of unprimed seeds. The length of the lag phase (phase II) of primed seeds was increased by 12 hours in pea seeds, decreased by 12 hours in snap beans, and unchanged in asparagus beans. The conductivity of primed seeds of pea and asparagus bean was decreased as the amount of water in the vermiculite decreased during priming. The conductivity values of the seeds primed with 35ml and 25ml of water were 20uA/seed/4ml, significantly lower than those of unprimed seeds.
The effective priming treatments were concerned with achieving and maintaining a near-equilibrium water potential between seeds and media, while moisture content of seeds achieved the lag phase. The released amount of CO2 from the seeds during priming could be a index of priming. Priming reduced electrolyte leakage and enhanced seed vigor. The germination percentage and germination rate were improved in primed seeds under adverse environmental conditions.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29351
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

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