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|標題:||Studies of phenology and interaction between Ficus irisana Elm. ( Moraceae) and it''s fig wasps
澀葉榕（Ficus irisana Elm.）與榕果小蜂之物候週期及種間關係
|關鍵字:||澀葉榕;Ficus irisana Elm.;開花週期;榕果小蜂;種間關係;phenology;fig wasps;interspecific relationship||出版社:||昆蟲學系||摘要:||
The present study aims to investigate various aspects of Ficus irisana Elm. and it''s fig wasps, such as phenology, biology, and the relationship between fig trees and fig wasps and that among fig wasps. The main flowering season of F. irisana was from June to December during which both male and female figs had two to four crops. The amount of figs would increase as the temperature rose and decreased as the precipitation increased. The number of figs and the duration of fig wasps were strongly affected by the coexistence of female phase and male phase figs. Seven species of fig wasps in three families were found, namely Kradibia commuta, Philotrypesis sp., Sycoscapter sp., Herodotia sp., Sycophila sp. 1, Sycophila sp. 2 and a species of Braconidae. K. commuta was the pollinator which had sternal corbiculae and coxa pollen comb at fore legs. Since the amount of male flowers were relatively lower and concentrated around ostile, the pollinators were assumed to conduct active pollination for it''s host plant. Furthermore, the study showed the non-pollinators, Philotrypesis sp. and Sycoscapter sp., alwasys appered along with the pollinators. They penetrated their ovipositors through the interflorence phase figs and laid eggs. The relationship among these three fig wasps were as follow: Philotropesis sp. was an inquiline which lived in galls forms by pollinators, whereas Sycoscapter sp. was a parasitoid in Philotrypesis sp.. The non-pollinators would greatly reduced the number of pollinators and therefore had a negative impact on the mutualism between F. irisana and it''s pollinators.
本論文針對雌雄異株的澀葉榕（Ficus irisana Elm.）之開花週期、榕果發育、榕小蜂相、榕小蜂生物學；榕樹和榕小蜂與授粉蜂和其它非授粉蜂之間的關係進行研究。其開花高峰期集中在每年的6月底至12月，期間雌雄樣株各有二到四個花期，但其它時間仍有少量的榕果存在。榕果數量和溫度及雨量有顯著的相關性，與溫度成正相關；而與降水量成負相關。雌花期雌雄榕果需與雄花期雄榕果配合得當，否則榕果數量以及授粉蜂出現的時間長短都會受到影響。澀葉榕上總共收集到7種蜂類，分別是榕小蜂科（Agaonidae）的Kradibia commuta、Philotrypesis sp.、Sycoscapter sp.及Herodotia sp.；廣肩小蜂科（Eurytomidae）的Sycophila sp.1、Sycophila sp.2和小繭蜂科（Braconidae）的一種小蜂。其中Kradibia commuta為其授粉蜂，具有中胸腹節花粉籃及前足基節花粉刷；且澀葉榕之雄花數目比例低於10%，而集中在榕果小孔四週，所以推測授粉蜂會為澀葉榕主動授粉。隨授粉蜂出現的兩種非授粉蜂Philotrypesis sp.及Sycoscapter sp.在榕果C期依序由榕果外產卵。基於套袋實驗及相關性分析，這三種蜂之間的關係推測為：Philotrypesis sp.為寄居在授粉蜂所形成的蟲癭上的寄居者；而Sycoscapter sp.則為寄生在Philotrypesis sp.上之類寄生者。非授粉蜂的出現使授粉蜂的子代數大量減少，確實會對榕樹與授粉蜂之間的互利共生關係產生負面的影響。
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