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|標題:||Life History, Intrinsic Rate of Increase and Field Population Fluctuation of Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida on Four Cultivars of Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze )
神澤葉璊 (Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida)在四種茶樹品種上之生活史、內在增殖率及田間族群消長
|關鍵字:||神澤葉璊;Tetranychus kanzawai;生活史;內在增殖率;族群消長;茶樹品種;life history;intrinsic rate of incerase;population flutcuation;tea cultivars||出版社:||昆蟲學系||摘要:||
Significant differences of developmental duration of immature, adult longevity, oviposition period, reproductivity and sex ratio of Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (KSM) were demonstrated on 4 tea varieties, Szu-Ji Chuen, (SJC); TTES No. 12, (TTES-12); TTES No. 13, (TTES-13); and Chin-Shin Oolong, (CSO) under 26 2℃, 65 3% RH and 12L: 12D. Egg duration of KSM among 4 tea varieties are significantly different (4.4∼4.8 days) but not the duration of larvae, protonymphs and deutonymphs. The variety significantly influences the developmental duration that ranges from 14.6 to 20.7 days, so does the oviposition period and the reproduction rate of females but not the longevity. Sex ratio favors female (0.75∼0.94 : ♀♀/ (♀♀＋♂♂)). The daily reproduction rate is accordingly decreased to female age and the curve fluctuates in cycle. The longest reproduction period is found in SJC where the shortest in TTES-13. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and net reproductive rate (R0) of KSM were estimated by two sexual life table, the calculated rm and R0 on SJC (rm = 0.078;R0 = 8.810) is the largest that follows TTES-12 (rm = 0.069;R0 = 6.520), and the smallest on TTES-13 (rm = 0.005;R0 = 1.140) and CSO (rm = 0.008;R0 = 1.230). The KSM population needs 27.4 ∼37.5 days for a mean generation time (T). The curves of net maternity value (vx) show a similar result on favorable variety for KSM population increases that are indicated by rm and R0.
Annual mean population densities of KSM on 4 varieties in the field falls between 17.03∼104.08 mites per 5 leaves and they are significantly different (CSO > TTES-12 > TTES-13 = SJC). The stage specific densities of KSM also show a similar difference in density level among the 4 varieties. The seasonal occurrences of high density of KSM are significant and they are in Dec. for CSO, March for SJC, Oct. for TTES-12 and June for TTES-13. While the low densities occur in Aug.∼Oct., temperature (F = 13.92, P = 0.001) and density of predatory mites Amblyseius womersleyi (Schicha) (F = 28.47, P = 0.001) significantly influence the population density of KSM but not the rainfall and relative humidity. The temperature and predatory mite are considered as the major components influencing the KSM with a total influence of 81% up among the variance. However, the influences of rainfall cooperating with temperature need further study due to its non-even effects on the KSM densities in winter and summer.
於四季春、臺茶12號、臺茶13號及青心烏龍等四種茶樹的浮葉及26 ±2℃，65 ±3％ RH和12L：12D條件下，神澤葉（Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida）的各齡發育期及其死亡率、成壽命、產卵期、及性比率等均受茶品種之影響呈顯著差異性。神澤葉發育期需14.6∼20.7日，其中以卵期最長（4.4∼4.8日），且品種間差異顯著。產卵期及產卵量受品種影響顯著，而壽命則否；發育期在四季春為14.6日，臺茶12號為16.2日，而臺茶13號為20.7日，青心烏龍為20.1日，品種間差異顯著。族群內之雌性比高於雄（0.75∼0.94：雌/(雌＋雄)）。每日每雌產卵量曲線隨雌日齡之增加呈起伏循環及遞減，產卵期以四季春最長（22.07日），臺茶13號（10.47日）最短。神澤葉於四品種茶葉上之兩性生命表計算其內在增殖率（rm）及淨增殖率（R0），以四季春（rm = 0.078；R0 = 8.810）最高，臺茶12號次之（rm = 0.069；R0 = 6.520），臺茶13號（rm = 0.005；R0 = 1.140）及青心烏龍（rm = 0.008；R0 = 1.230）最低；平均世代時間（T）介於27.4日（臺茶12號）∼37.5日（青心烏龍），其繁殖淨值曲線（vx）亦顯示品種間有相同的結果。
田間神澤葉族群年平均密度介於17.03∼104.08 / 5葉，其中以青心烏龍最高，臺茶12號次之，臺茶13號及四季春最低；各齡期之密度亦具相同之趨勢。葉在田間茶樹最高族群密度發生季節隨品種而異（青心烏龍於12月，四季春於3月，臺茶12號於10月及臺茶13號於6月）。神澤葉田間族群密度顯著受溫度〔四季春（F = 13.92，P = 0.001）；臺茶12號（F = 27.90，P = 0.001）〕及溫氏捕植Amblyseius womersleyi（Schicha）〔四季春（F = 28.47，P = 0.001）；臺茶12號（F = 11.83，P = 0.001；青心烏龍（F = 1.390，P = 0.001）〕影響，而雨量及相對濕度則否；前二者為茶神澤葉族群依變之主要因子，且此二者共同對葉之變方作用力達81﹪以上。冬季及夏季葉密度之高低受低溫乾旱或高溫多雨之影響而不易判別其作用，故雨量及溫度共同對葉族群密度之影響作用，猶待進一步之探究。
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