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The Development, Fecundity, Population Parameters and Field Population Fluctuation of Cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, on Various Host Plants
|關鍵字:||Cotton aphid;棉蚜;Development;Fecundity;Population parameters;Population fluctuation;發育;繁殖;族群介量;族群變動||出版社:||昆蟲學系||摘要:||
於10~30℃五種定溫下，棉蚜(Aphis gossypii Glover)在番石榴(Psidium guajava L.)、紫花霍香薊(Ageratum houstonianum Mill.)及大花咸豐草(Bidens pilosa L.)三種寄主植物上若蚜發育所需時間，皆隨溫度升高而縮短；在番石榴上，於15℃下需時18.44天、25℃時僅需5.39天；在紫花霍香薊上，於10℃下需時23.80天、30℃時僅需4.63天；在大花咸豐草上，於10℃下需時22.51天、25℃時僅需6.24天。棉蚜若蚜理論發育臨界低溫，在番石榴、紫花霍香薊及大花咸豐草上分別為11.19、5.64及4.52℃；總積溫分別為76.16、104.73及133.73DD。在同一定溫下棉蚜在不同寄主植物上的成蚜體長及體寬皆有差異；成蚜壽命除於25℃時有顯著差異外，其餘各溫度下均無顯著差異。棉蚜之繁殖率在番石榴上以25℃時之36.43子代╱♀為最高，在紫花霍香薊上以25℃時及20℃時之48.93及48.07子代╱♀為最高，在大花咸豐草上則以20℃時之35.27子代╱♀為最高；在同一溫度下，繁殖率除在15℃時三者無顯著差異外，在其他各溫度下皆有顯著差異。棉蚜在三種不同寄主植物上之族群介量，其內在增殖率(r)及終極增殖率(λ)皆於25℃時達最大值(番石榴上為r=0.3924/天、λ=1.4800/天，紫花霍香薊上為r=0.5106/天、λ=1.6653/天，大花咸豐草上為r=0.3214/天、λ=1.3766/天)；淨增殖率(R0)在番石榴與紫花香薊上，皆於25℃時最高(分別為36.40、48.93子代╱♀)，在大花咸豐草上則於20℃時最高(35.07子代╱♀)；在不同寄主植物上之平均世代時間(T) 皆隨著溫度的上升而逐漸縮短，至30℃時最短(分別為8.82、6.99及9.69天) 。自紫花霍香薊棉蚜蟲源之一齡、二齡、三齡及成蚜，轉換寄主至番石榴後第10天之存活率皆低於50%，母蚜開始產蚜後5日中，每隻母蚜每日最大繁殖量介於2.19~3.85隻間；而自大花咸豐草蟲源轉換至番石榴後第10天之存活率則高於50%，每隻母蚜每日最大繁殖量介於2.82 ~4.00隻間。1999年10月至2000年10月調查田間之族群變動，棉蚜在番石榴上之族群發生高峰出現在11月至次年2月間，在紫花霍香薊上的族群高峰發生在10月至12月間，在大花咸豐草上的發生高峰出現在1月底。經迴歸分析結果，棉蚜在番石榴上的田間族群變動，主要受溫度之負影響(R2=0.6577, P=0.0022)，與番石榴葉片總含氮量、大花咸豐草上之棉蚜族群數量及其有翅蚜數量呈正相關；在紫花霍香薊上的族群變動只受風速之影響，呈正相關。
The developmental time of nymphal stage of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Golver, reared on three host plants, Psidium guajava L., Ageratum houstonianum Mill., and Bidens pilosa L., reduced with the increasing of temperatures at five constant temperatures of 10 ~30℃. The longest developmental time was 18.44 days at 15℃ and the shortest was 5.39 days at 25℃ on P. guajava, on A. houstonianum and B. pilosa the longest developmental time were 23.80 days and 22.51 days, respectively, both at 10℃, and the shortest was 4.63 days at 30℃ on A. houstonianum and 6.24 days at 25℃ on B. pilosa. The theoretical low developmental threshold and thermal summation of nymphal stage were 11.19℃ and 76.16 DD on P. guajava, 5.64℃ and 104.73 DD on A. houstonianum, and 4.52℃ and 133.73 DD on B. pilosa. The body length and body width of adults reared on various host plants were measured and compared in this paper. The adult longevities on various host plants were not significantly different at various temperatures. The highest fecundity was 36.43 offspring/ female observed at 25℃on P. guajava, and 48.93 and 48.07 offspring/ female, respectively, at 25℃ and 20℃ on A. houstonianum, and 35.27 offspring/female at 20℃ on B. pilosa. There were significantly different at each temperature for the fecundities of adult on three different host plants, except at 15℃. The population parameter of this species on various host plants showed that the hightest intrinsic rate of increase (r) and the finite rate of increase (λ) were at 25℃, of which r=0.3924/day and λ= 1.4800/day on P. guajava, r=0.5106/day and λ=1.6653/day on A. houstonianum, and r=0.3214/day andλ=1.3766/day on B. pilosa. The highest net reproductive rates (R0) were 36.40 offspring/female and 48.93 offspring, respectively, on P. guajava and A. houstonianum at 25℃, and 35.07 offspring/female on B. pilosa at 20℃. The generation times (T) on three host plants were reduced with an increase in temperatures, the shortest were 8.82 days on P. guajava, 6.99 days on A. houstonianum, and 9.69 days on B. pilosa, respectively, at 30℃. When alter the host plants by transferring the different nymphal instars and adults from the A. houstonianum and B. pilosa clones to P. guajava, the survival rate of the former was lower than 50%, and was more than 50% for the later, and the maximum fecundity of females transferred on new host plant was 2.19 to 3.85 offspring/day/female from A. houstonianum clone, and 2.82 to 4.00 offspring/ day/female from B. pilosa clone. From October 1999 to October 2000, the population fluctuations of A. gossypii were investigated on three host plants in the FTHES guava orchard. The populations occurred all year around, and reached the peak from December to the following February on P. guajava, and for the populations on A. houstonianum and B. pilosa the peak appeared in October to December, and at the end of January, respectively. The major factors affecting the population fluctuation of this aphid on P. guajava were the temperature, the nitrogen concentration, the number of aphid and the alatae on B. pilosa, and only the wind speed was positively correlated to the population on A. houstonianum.
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