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Effect of temperature on development of Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and its predation on Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)
|關鍵字:||Delphastus catalinae;小黑粉蝨瓢蟲;Bemisia argentifolii;Poinsettia;Development;Predation;銀葉粉蝨;聖誕紅;發育;捕食量||出版社:||昆蟲學系||摘要:||
將小黑粉蝨瓢蟲(Delphastus catalinae)分別置於16、20、24、28及32℃不同定溫下，觀察其生長發育時間，在 28℃下，小黑粉蝨瓢蟲從卵發育至成蟲所需的時間為21.7天，存活率平均為66﹪，雌成蟲平均壽命為53.7天，雄成蟲壽命平均為48.7天，內在增值率(r)在28℃最高(r=0.0970)，在32℃最低(r=0.0538)；平均世代時間以20℃時最長為，為以28℃時最短為。在捕食量方面，小黑粉蝨瓢蟲幼蟲，一齡、二齡及三至五齡幼蟲捕食粉蝨卵之數量，分別為68.7、173.1及686.9粒卵，全幼蟲期共計捕食936.6粒卵。其成蟲每天可捕食銀葉粉蝨的卵數和一齡、二齡、三齡及四齡若蟲蟲數，平均分別為138.7粒和121.7、72.1、35.6及12.6隻。每株聖誕紅植株接種(20、40、60、80及100隻/株)不同密度銀葉粉蝨，釋放單隻小黑粉蝨瓢蟲雌成蟲，經第六週，在低密度粉蝨數20和40隻/株的試驗中，銀葉粉蝨蟲數平均為1.0與3.8隻，顯示該瓢蟲對於粉蝨族群有明顯的抑制效果；在高密度粉蝨數60、80及100隻粉蝨/株試驗，試驗到第六週，植株因為銀葉粉蝨密度繼續增加葉片已呈凋謝枯萎。在每株聖誕紅植株接種160隻粉蝨試驗，每株每分別釋放2、3及4對小黑粉蝨瓢蟲成蟲，經過五週後，結果顯示粉蝨數量皆明顯的下降，可達到控制粉蝨族群數量。在每株聖誕紅植株接種320隻粉蝨試驗，釋放2、3及4對小黑粉蝨瓢蟲成蟲，經過八週後，結果顯示接種3和4對瓢蟲之試驗組中，粉蝨數量皆明顯的下降，但是接種2對瓢蟲之試驗組中，粉蝨數有明顯上升，植株在高密度粉蝨下，已有些凋謝枯萎，到了第十二週後，瓢蟲成蟲數明顯增加，粉蝨族群數才漸漸減少。
The developmental time, fecundity, and longevity of D. catalinae on the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, was studied in the laboratory at various temperatures (16, 20, 24, 28, and 32℃). The results showed that the developmental time from egg to adult was 21.7 days and the survival rate was 66﹪at 28℃, the developmental rate increased with the increase of temperatures. Longevity of adults was 53.7 days for females and 48.7 days for males and the maximal number of eggs was oviposited at 28℃.The highest intrinsic rate of increase was at 28℃(r=0.0970), the lowest at 32℃(r=0.0538) and the longest mean length of a generation was at 20℃ and the shortest at 28℃. Coccinellid larvae began feeding upon hatching and consumed a mean of 936.6 eggs before pupating. The numbers of prey consumed by adult beetles decreased with increase of age and size of B. argentifolii; 138.7 eggs, 121.7 first instar, 72.1 second instar, 35.6 third instar, 12.6 fourth instars per day by an adult females beetle. An adult of D. catalinae was released on poinsettia plants with different B. argentifolii densities (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 B. argentifolii / plant). Six weeks after the release the results showed that mean number of B. argentifolii on leaves of poinsettia plant were 1.0 and 3.8 B. argentifolii / plant in treatments containing 20 and 40 B. argentifolii / plant, respectively. The test plants were wilted and died in treatment containing 60, 80, and 100 B. argentifolii / plant. In the functional response experiment 2, 3, and 4 pairs of D. catalinae / plant were released on a poinsettia plant infested with 160 and 320 B. argentifolii / plant. In the infested 160 of B. argentifolii / plant experiment the mean number of B. argentifolii were significantly different among the treatment in 5 weeks after releasing of the D. catalinae. In the infested with 320 B. argentifolii / plant experiment 2, 3, and 4 pairs of D. catalinae/ plant were released in poinsettia for 8 weeks. The results showed that the number of B. argentifolii were significantly decreased in the releasing of 3, and 4 pairs of D. catalinae / plant, but in the releasing 2 pairs of D. catalinae test, the number of B. argentifolii were significantly rose and the plants were wilted. Until 12th weeks, the B. argentifolii density were significantly decreased.
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