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Effect of temperature on development of Serangium japonicum Chapin (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and cold storage in comparison with Delphastus catalinae (Horn)
|關鍵字:||溫度;temperature;刀角瓢蟲;發育;小黑粉蝨瓢蟲;低溫冷藏;Serangium japonicum Chapin;development;Delphastus catalinae (Horn);cold storage||出版社:||昆蟲學系||摘要:||
刀角瓢蟲(Serangium japonicum Chapin)為本地種瓢蟲，平日捕食銀葉粉蝨(Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring)。於本文中描述刀角瓢蟲各蟲期之形態特徵和生活習性。刀角瓢蟲以銀葉粉蝨飼育於不同定溫時，各幼蟲期發育所需時間之結果，卵期於20℃下，需時6.7天;而32℃下僅需3.2天。幼蟲於16℃下需時42.65天，32℃下僅需13.42天。擬蛹於16℃下需時3.53天，32℃下僅需1.31天。蛹於16℃下需時13.76天，32℃下僅需3.17天。卵、幼蟲、擬蛹及蛹的發育臨界低溫分別為10.39、12.75、8.50及11.09℃，有效積溫分別為71.43、105.26、27.55及63.29DD。不同溫度飼育下之族群介量，內在增殖率(r)、終極增殖率(K)及淨增殖率(Ro)均介於24℃下飼育者(r=0.0227/天，K=1.0236/天，Ro=2.20) 和28℃下飼育者(r=0.1796/天，K=1.1945，Ro=62.55) 之間；平均世代時間介於在20℃下飼育者之43.00天和在32℃下飼育者之21.86天之間。於28℃下，刀角瓢蟲之幼蟲以銀葉粉蝨飼育在甘藍、芥菜、茄子、蕃薯及菸草等寄主植物上，均可順利完成發育，其中以聖誕紅為寄主植物之銀葉粉蝨飼育相比較時，整個幼期均差異不顯著，但在各寄主植物間最偏好聖誕紅，最不接近甘藍。提供刀角瓢蟲卵粒給初齡幼蟲捕食時，幼蟲會取食而延長壽命，食物充足時可以蛻皮為二齡幼蟲。刀角瓢蟲在8℃貯存7日，三日齡卵孵化率為25％，羽化率為35％。羽化後飼育5及10日的成蟲在8℃貯存7日後，其存活率為90及95％，貯存30日後存活率10％，存活者之壽命及產卵量較未冷藏者低。在8℃貯存7日，小黑粉蝨瓢蟲(Delphastus catalinae )卵孵化率為35％，羽化率為20％，幼蟲存活者80％可成功化蛹。羽化後飼育5及10日的成蟲在8℃貯藏7日，其存活率為25及45％，壽命及產卵量皆較未冷藏者低。
The morphological characters of each stage of Serangium japonicum Chapin were described in this paper. S. japonicum is a native predator of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring in Taiwan. The developmental time of the immature stage of S. japonicum were reared on poinsettia at five constant temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28 and 32℃. In the egg, the developmental time required for 6.7 days at 20℃, and it took only 3.2 days at 32℃. In the larval, prepupal and pupal stages, the developmental times were 42.65, 3.53 and 13.76 days at 16℃ and only 13.42, 1.31 and 3.17 days were required at 32℃. The theoretical low developmental threshold temperature of egg, larval, prepupal and pupal stages were 10.39, 12.75, 8.50 and 11.09℃, respectively. The thremal summation were 71.43, 105.26, 27.55 and 63.29 DD, respectively. The population parameter under different temperatures showed that the intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (K) and the net reproductive value (Ro) were between those reared at 24℃ (r= 0.0227, K= 1.0236, Ro= 2.20) and 28℃ (r= 0.1796, K= 1.1945, Ro= 62.55). The mean generation time (T) was between 43.00 days at 20℃ and 21.86 days at 32℃. At 28℃, larvae were successfully reared on B. argentifolii which were fed on cabbage, kale, egg plant, sweet potato and tobacco plants. The ladybeetles preferred reared on B. argentifolii fed on poinsettia the most and fed on cabbage the least. The newly hatched S. japonicum larvae which taken 1-2 eggs can lengthen their life span 1-2 days and they fed on 3-4 eggs were able to grow into second instars without whitefly food. Developmental stages of S. japonicum and Delphastus catalinae (Horn) were stored at 5 and 8℃ for various storages periods in a refrigerator. The hatching rate of S. japonicum 3-day-old egg was 25% after 7 days of storage at 8℃ and emergence rate of adult was 35%。The hatching rate of D. catalinae 3-day-old egg was 35% after 7 days of storage at 8℃ and emergence rate of adult was 20% and there was 80% surviving larvae to be pupae successfully. The survival rates of adults differed and appeared to depend on prior feeding before storage. From these results, it suggests that the adult stage may be better able to survive extended periods of storage than the other developmental stages.
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