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Investigation of the larval food plant range for the Casuarina moth (Lymantria xylina)
|關鍵字:||Lymantria xylina;黑角舞蛾;host plant range;feeding performance;寄主範圍;生長表現||出版社:||昆蟲學系||摘要:||
The casuarina moth (Lymantria xylina Swinhoe, 1903) (Lepidotera: Lymantriidae) is a serious defoliator of hardwood and fruit trees in Taiwan. Host plant range of larvae of L. xylina has been recorded with 63 plant species, belonging to 29 families. Because the host plant range and larval performance on different plants are not clear, we investigated different larval instar fed on different food plants to reconfirm the host plant range. In this study, 47 food plants, belonging to 25 families were used to feed L. xylina larvae. Through various bioassays [first-instar survival, long-term (first-, third- and fifth-instar) feeding trials, and short-term feeding trials], the most applicable food plants for the L. xylina were selected. After first-instar survival trial, 34 food plants were discarded because of low larval survivorship. Result of first-instar long-term trial indicated that larvae can only successfully grow on 9 food plants. To reconfirm the food plant range, 38 food plants were used to feed on third- and fifth-instar with long-term trials. Then, 7 food plants were selected to execute short-term trial. Finally, the result of long-term trials revealed that, when larvae fed on Terminalia catappa L., Liquidambar formosana Hance. and Averrhoa carambola L., they had better survival rate, developmental time, pupal weight, and adult size. Besides, larvae fed on Terminalia catappa L., Liquidambar formosana Hance., Averrhoa carambola L. and Macaranga tanarius (L.) Muell.-Arg., had shorter developmental time (DUR), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), and relative growth rate (RGR). In summary, I found larvae had different performance while fed on different food plants, and the food plant range increased with larval stage. I also found that not all of the known host plants could support the larvae developed to adult, and not all of the plants which ever suffered serious harm can feed the larvae well. Therefore, there is a necessity to rethink the definition of host plants and reconfirm the host plant range for L. xylina.
黑角舞蛾（Lymantria xylina Swinhoe, 1903）（Lepidoptera: Lymantridae）是台灣重要的森林及果樹害蟲之一，過去紀錄其幼蟲寄主範圍包含29科63種植物。由於目前對於黑角舞蛾幼蟲田間實際寄主範圍，及取食不同植物的生長表現了解仍嫌不足；因此本研究希望能藉由測試不同齡期幼蟲取食不同寄主植物的生長表現，進一步確認黑角舞蛾在台灣的寄主範圍。本實驗以25科47種植物（包含過去未曾紀錄的植物6科20種）餵食黑角舞蛾幼蟲，經一齡蟲存活率分析、長期餵食試驗（一齡、三齡及五齡）與短期餵食試驗，測試黑角舞蛾幼蟲之發育情形，以了解黑角舞蛾取食不同寄主之生長表現；另也分析植物之化學成分，以了解植物成分與幼蟲生長表現之關聯。在一齡蟲存活率分析中，僅13種植物能維持幼蟲進入二齡，再以該13種植物進行一齡蟲長期試驗；由於一齡蟲試驗結果與過去紀錄有出入，故再以38種植物進行三齡及五齡蟲長期試驗，最後選出7種先前實驗中生長表現較好的植物進行短期餵食試驗。結果顯示，取食欖仁、楓香及楊桃在存活率、發育時間、蛹重及成蟲重等方面表現良好；而取食欖仁、楓香、楊桃及血桐的幼蟲，在短期試驗裡的發育時間（DUR）、食物利用效率（ECD）及（ECI）與相對生長速率（RGR）上有較佳的表現。綜合以上，取食不同食草的確對幼蟲生長表現有影響，也證實齡期越大，幼蟲之寄主範圍越廣。另外，也發現並非所有紀錄中的寄主都能維持黑角舞蛾完成生活史，而過去曾紀錄嚴重受害的植物，也不一定是黑角舞蛾的良好食草，因此，筆者認為有必要針對黑角舞蛾寄主範圍，再進行重新之定義與確認。
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