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A comparative study of predatory behavior of Serangium japonicum and Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae ) on Bemisia argentifolii ( Homoptera : Aleyrodidae )
銀葉粉蝨(Bemisia argentifolii Perring and Bellows)危害多種農藝及園藝作物，造成經濟上的損失。本文即對銀葉粉蝨之捕食性天敵-刀角瓢蟲(Serangium japonicum Chapin)及小黑粉蝨瓢蟲(Delphastus catalinae (Horn))進行比較研究，研究項目包括生活史、耐飢餓度、捕食銀葉粉蝨之行為、瓢蟲種內和種間捕食行為。在28℃下刀角瓢蟲與小黑粉蝨瓢蟲由卵發育到成蟲分別平均需要18.44及26.39天。若只供應瓢蟲水分，測試成蟲的耐飢餓度，刀角瓢蟲與小黑粉蝨瓢蟲成蟲平均壽命分別為4.03及5.80日，刀角瓢蟲之壽命較長。比較瓢蟲成蟲行走之速度、轉向頻率及飛行機率，刀角瓢蟲之行走速度、轉向頻率及飛行機率皆高於小黑粉蝨瓢蟲。比較這兩種瓢蟲成蟲之捕食量與處理食餌的速度，刀角瓢蟲與小黑粉蝨瓢蟲成蟲平均於24小時分別可以捕食208.15及39.30隻銀葉粉蝨三齡若蟲；而捕食一隻銀葉粉蝨四齡若蟲分別需要花費149.30和471.82秒。刀角瓢蟲成蟲捕食銀葉粉蝨的速度和捕食量比較高。觀察兩種瓢蟲成蟲於30分鐘內捕食銀葉粉蝨之行為，結果顯示兩種瓢蟲花在取食、行走、清潔及休息的時間比例各不相同。測試兩種瓢蟲捕食同種瓢蟲之比例，結果刀角瓢蟲捕食同種瓢蟲的比例可高達100 %，而小黑粉蝨瓢蟲捕食同種瓢蟲的比例低於50 %。觀察兩種瓢蟲種間捕食的比例，結果為刀角瓢蟲捕食小黑粉蝨瓢蟲之機率高於小黑粉蝨瓢蟲捕食刀角瓢蟲之比例。
The silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Perring and Bellows (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) is a pest of agricultural and horticultural crops, and causes economic cost. The subject of this paper is comparative study of two coccinellid beetles, Serangium japonicum Chapin and Delphastus catalinae (Horn), which are predators of the silverleaf whitefly. The observation included the life cycle, the effect of different diets on longevity, feeding behavior, interspecific and intraspecific predation. The developmental time of S. japonicum and D. catalinae at 28 ℃ required 18.44 and 26.39 days, respectively. The longevity of ladybugs was compared when water was offered only, and the longevity of S. japonicum and D. catalinae were 4.03 and 5.80 days, respectively. The longevity of D. catalinae was longer than another. Searching behavior included walking, turning and flying was observed, and D. catalinae had a higher walking speed, turning frequency and flying rate than S. japonicum had. The number of 3rd nymph of silverleaf whiteflies preyed by S. japonicum and D. catalinae were 208.15 and 39.30 during 24 hours, respectively. The feeding time of 4th nymph of silverleaf whiteflies preyed by of S. japonicum and D. catalinae cost 149.30 and 471.82 seconds. S. japonicum had a higher feeding rate and larger consumption. The allocation of feeding time, walking time, resting time and clearing time within 30 minutes of S. japonicum and D. catalinae were different. S. japonicum had a higher proportion of cannibalism nearly 100 %, and the cannibalism proportion of D. catalinae was under 50 %. The interspecific predation between S. japonicum and D. catalinae were also observed, and rate of D. catalinae fed by S. japonicum was higher than S. japonicum fed by D. catalinae.
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