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|標題:||以四種葉蟎及二種花粉飼育溫氏捕植蟎 (Neoseiulus womersleyi (Schicha)) 及卵形捕植蟎 (Euseius ovalis (Evans)) 之生物學、生命表介量及捕食率
Biology, life table parameters and predation rates of Neoseiulus womersleyi (Schicha) and Euseius ovalis (Evans) feeding on four tetranychid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae) and two kinds of pollen
|作者:||VINH, NGUYEN THANH
|關鍵字:||Euseius ovalis;卵形捕植螨;Neoseiulus womersleyi;Tetranychid mites;Pollen;Life table;溫氏捕植螨;花粉;生命表介量||出版社:||昆蟲學系所||摘要:||
於25° 下以二點葉螨 (Tetranychus urticae Koch)，神澤葉螨 (T. kanzawai Kishida)，芒果葉螨 (Oligonychus mangiferus Rahman and Sapra)，柑桔葉螨 (Panonychus citri McGregor)或玉米花粉或絲瓜花粉飼養溫氏捕植螨(Neoseiulus womersleyi (Schicha)，及卵形捕植螨 (Euseius ovalis (Evans))，探究該二捕植螨之發育、繁殖率及族群增殖率時，供大量繁殖及飼育該二捕植螨天敵可行性之評估。溫氏捕植螨取食二點葉螨和神澤葉螨，其發育期較飼養於其它食源者短 (分別雄螨: 4.71和5.02天，雌螨: 4.77和5.19天)。取食芒果葉螨及二點葉螨的卵形捕植螨雌螨發育期分別為4.99和5.13天，均短於其它食物源。卵形捕植螨雄螨取食芒果葉螨及二點葉螨時的發育期分別為5.12和5.37天。溫氏補植螨雄螨 (13.31至14.51天) 和雌成螨 (17.67至21.81天)取食二點葉螨、神澤葉螨或玉米花粉之壽命長於芒果葉螨、柑桔葉螨或絲瓜花粉。飼養於芒果葉螨、二點葉螨或玉米花粉的卵形捕植螨雄成螨 (12.91至16.74天) 和雌成螨 (16.24至23.77天) 之壽命長於神澤葉螨、柑桔葉螨或絲瓜花粉。
取食二點葉螨的溫氏捕植螨繁殖力比較高(33.57卵/母個體)，取食柑桔葉螨低(17.63卵/雌體)。在所有的食物源測試中，取食芒果葉螨的卵形捕植螨繁殖力最高(35.86卵/雌體)，取食神澤葉螨的最低(8.89卵/雌體)。捕植螨之雌性比率會受食源而影響，溫氏捕植螨雌性比率介於0.67至0.78及卵形捕植螨則介於0.68至0.78 之間。溫氏捕植螨的凈增殖率 (Ro = 24.86子代/隻) 及內在增殖率 (rm = 0.254子代/雌/天) 則以取食二點葉螨及神澤葉螨食餌的最高，取食芒果葉螨的凈增殖率 (9.88子代/隻) 及絲瓜花粉的內在增殖率 (0.179子代/雌/天) 為最低。卵形捕植螨取食芒果葉螨時，其凈增殖率 (26.46子代/隻) 和內在增殖率 (0.256子代/雌/天) 高於其它食源。溫氏捕植螨和卵形捕植螨取食兩種花粉時均能發育為成螨及繁殖子代，所以這二種花粉在實驗室和田間的條件下都可以當作這兩種捕植螨的補充食源。
溫氏捕植螨於發育期每天捕食二點葉螨9.73卵，13.53幼蟲，或12.07前若螨，但於產卵期雌螨每天則捕食二點葉螨12.13卵，14.37幼蟲，或12.07前若螨。溫氏捕植螨雌成螨一生捕食二點葉螨總量為218.12卵，260.85幼蟲或222.33 前若螨；雄螨則僅捕食96.39卵，112.23幼蟲或99.65前若螨。卵形捕植螨捕食芒果葉螨時，其發育期需18.57幼蟲或17.47 前若螨。產卵期的卵形捕植螨雌成螨每天則捕食16.83幼蟲或12.83 前若螨，其一生總捕食量為330.68幼蟲或252 前若螨。卵形捕植螨雄成螨的捕食量比雌成螨少，一生捕食107.69芒果葉螨幼螨或91.51前若螨。捕食量轉換為每產一子代的捕食-繁殖轉換率顯示溫氏捕植螨取食二點葉螨時的捕食-繁殖轉換率比神澤葉螨低；卵形捕植螨取食芒果葉螨之捕食-繁殖轉換率高於二點葉螨。
The development, life table and predation rates of the predatory mites Neoseiulus womersleyi and Euseius ovalis feeding on four tetranychid mites and two kinds of pollen was studied in a chamber at 25°C, 75±5% RH and 16:8 (L:D) photoperiod. Immature stages of N. womersleyi feeding on Tetranychus urticae and T. kanzawai had shorter development duration (4.71 and 5.02 days for females, 4.77 and 5.19 days for males, respectively) than those feeding on other food sources. Immature stages of E. ovalis females feeding on Oligonychus mangiferus and T. urticae developed in 4.99 and 5.13 days, respectively, the shortest developmental duration measured. Immature stages of E. ovalis males feeding on O. mangiferus and T. urticae developed in 5.12 and 5.37 days, respectively. The longevity of N. womersleyi males (13.31 to 14.51 days) and females (17.67 to 21.81 days) feeding on T. urticae, T. kanzawai or maize pollen was longer than the longevity of N. womersleyi feeding on O. mangiferus, P. citri or loofah pollen. Euseius ovalis males (12.91 to 16.74 days) and females (16.24 to 23.77 days) feeding on O. mangiferus, T. urticae or maize pollen lived longer than E. ovalis males and females feeding on T. kanzawai or Panonychus citri or loofah pollen.
Among all of the food sources tested, the fecundity of N. womersleyi was high (33.57 eggs/female) on T. urticae, but low on P. citri (17.63 eggs/female), whereas E. ovalis was high (35.86 eggs/female) on O. mangiferus and low (8.89 eggs/ female) on T. kanzawai. Sex ratio differed among food sources and ranged from 0.67 to 0.78 for N. womersleyi and from 0.68 to 0.78 for E. ovalis. In addition, female sex ratios of N. womersleyi and E. ovalis in the field also changes, higher sex ratio in June, July and November, and lower sex ratio was found in August, September and December. The highest net reproductive rate (R0 = 24.86 offspring/individual) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm = 0.254/day) were found in N. womersleyi feeding on T. urticae and T. kanzawai, respectively; the lowest R0 (9.88 offspring/individual) was recorded on O. mangiferus and the lowest rm (0.179/day) was on loofah pollen. When feeding on O. mangiferus, E. ovalis had a higher R0 (26.46 offspring/individual) and rm (0.256/day) than those fed on other food sources.
Neoseiulus womersleyi immatures consumed 9.73 T. urticae eggs, 13.53 larvae, or 11.57 protonymphs, while gravid females consumed 12.13 T. urticae eggs, 14.37 larvae, or 12.07 protonymphs daily. Female N. womersleyi consumed a total of 218.12 T. urticae eggs, 260.85 larvae, or 222.33 protonymphs, while male N. womersleyi consumed a total of 96.39 T. urticae eggs, 112.23 larvae, or 99.65 protonymphs. When O. mangiferus larvae or protonymphs were offered to E. ovalis, immatures consumed 18.57 larvae or 17.47 protonymphs. Gravid females consumed 16.83 larvae or 12.83 protonymphs daily, with a total of 330.68 larvae or 252 protonymphs. Adult E. ovalis males consumed fewer O. mangiferus larvae (107.69) or protonymphs (91.51) than females. Conversion rate of predation to reproduce was expressed as “Food-reproduction exchange rate” of N. womersleyi was lower on T. urticae than on T. kanzawai. E. ovalis showed a higher food-reproduction exchange rate on O. mangiferus than on T. urticae.
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