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標題: 蘭嶼四種棲地同翅目昆蟲相與物種多樣性研究之評論
Homopteran Fauna of Four Habitats on Orchid Island with Critiques on Species Diversity Researches
作者: 黃博森
Huang, Person
關鍵字: 蘭嶼;;生物多樣性;同翅目昆蟲;熱帶季風雨林
出版社: 昆蟲學系所
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Orchid Island is 82 km off the southeast coast of Taitung, Taiwan and its forests are the northernmost tropical forests in East Asia. In this study, the diversity of homopteran insects which are recognized as insects of hemipteran Auchenorrhyncha and Sternorrhyncha according to current taxonomic system, in natural forest, cultivated woodland, secondary woodland and grassland in Orchid Island was compared. In the northern, eastern, and southern part of the island, we established sampling plots in the aforementioned four habitat types and collected insects in January, April, July, and October of 2003. Methods used in collecting homopteran insects included canopy bagging and shaking, sweeping net and light trapping. A total of 6,036 individual homopterans belonging to 20 families and 147 morphological species were collected. Among all habitat types, the secondary woodland had the highest number of species, followed by cultivated woodland and grassland. The natural forest had the lowest number of species. The secondary woodland also had the highest abundance in term of number of individuals, followed by cultivated woodland and natural forest. The grassland had the lowest number of abundance. The highest values of Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson index were obtained for the grassland habitat and a similar pattern was also shown for rarefaction analysis. The results of the MDS and ANOSIM analyses showed that there were significant differences in the composition of homopteran insects between habitat types, except the contrast between the cultivated woodland and the secondary woodland. Results of the UPGMA analysis also showed the same pattern. In this study, there was a bias in the sampling methods and such bias might have influence on the results. For example, light trapping could potentially be affected by factors such as the visual and flight ability of insects and vegetation structure of the habitat. Nevertheless, when applying canopy bagging-and-shaking, collection were only conducted on dominant tree species in cultivated and secondary woodlands, while the sampling trees were chosen randomly in natural forest. Such sampling bias might explain why the results here deviated from the traditional view of a higher diversity in natural forests. On the other hand, the total number of species in four habitat types has not been acquired since the species cumulation curve of homopteran insects has not reached an asymptote in each habitat and an unbiased relative abundance among different habitats could not be guarantined. Consequently, it is inappropriate to calculate any diversity index based on such data. The population density and age structure of insects usually fluctuate seasonally and therefore there is no consistency in relative abundance of every species. Under such conditions, it is not appropriate to use simple indices and probabilistic statistics to analyze and to interpret insect diversity. In conducting biodiversity studies, in addition to basic taxonomic survey, the change of species composition and fluctuation of relative abundances should be assessed based on ecological methods and food chain structure for biodiversity studies. Only through such comprehensive approaches can we make a solid contribution to the biodiversity research.

蘭嶼距離台灣的東南方約82公里,島上的森林為東南亞分布最北端的熱帶季風雨林。本文研究蘭嶼地區天然林、撫育林、薪柴林及草原之同翅目 (即相當於現今分類體系所認可的半翅目之頸吻亞目及腹吻亞目) 昆蟲多樣性。在蘭嶼的北、東、南三個地區,分別選取上述四種類型的棲地,於2003年一月、四月、七月及十月進行調查。採集方法包含撈網、掃網及短波長燈光誘集。共採集同翅目昆蟲20科147形態種6,036隻。同翅目物種數以薪柴林最多,其次為撫育林、草原,而天然林最少;個體數亦以薪柴林最多,其次為撫育林、天然林,而草原最少。Shannon-Wiener index及Simpson index之值皆以草原最高,其次為薪柴林、撫育林,而天然林最低;rarefaction分析之結果亦相同。MDS及ANOSIM之分析結果顯示僅天然林與草原的同翅目昆蟲組成有差異,UPGMA亦呈現相同結果。由於燈光誘集受限於昆蟲之視覺及飛行能力與棲地結構,而本文之撈網採集在撫育林及薪柴林僅選取優勢樹種採集,在天然林則為隨機採樣,這些可能導致誤差的原因或許可以解釋本文之結果與一般天然棲地生物多樣性較高之概念不符。本研究雖然所採獲之同翅目物種及個體數相當多,但由物種累積曲線的趨勢來看,各棲地的總種數都還無法確定,而所使用的採集方法也無法保證調查的所有物種數量確實為各棲地中之相對豐度;且昆蟲的族群密度與齡期結構均隨季節而變動,各物種間並無固定之相對豐度。由於多樣性指數或統計無法正確的分析與解釋昆蟲多樣性,故多樣性的研究除基礎物種調查外,以生態學的方法和食物鏈的結構來研究影響物種組成及相對豐度變動的原因,會對生物多樣性的研究更有貢獻。
其他識別: U0005-2107200612580500
Appears in Collections:昆蟲學系

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