Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/30719
標題: Effects of Irradiation on Planococus minor, Pacific mealybugs
作者: ravuiwasa, Kaliova Tavou
卡力歐
關鍵字: Planococcus minor;Annona squamosa;Ionizing radiation;quarantine;http://etds.lib.nchu.edu.tw/etdservice/view_metadata?etdun=U0005-2008200816420200
出版社: 昆蟲學系所
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Entomol. 32: 463- 469. Cox, J. M. 1983. An experimental study of morphological variation in mealybugs (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). Syst. Entomol. 8: 361- 382. Cox, J. M. 1989. The mealybug genus Planococcus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 58: 1- 78. FAO (Food and Agricultural Organisation). 2003. Guidelines for the use of irradiation as a phytosanitary measure. International Plant Protection Convention, ISPM No. 18, Rome, Italy. Faruki, S. I., D. R. Das, and S. Khatun. 2005. Effects of UV- radiation on the larvae of the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and their progeny. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci. 5: 444- 448. Faruki, S. I., D. A. Das, A. R. Khan, and M. Khatum. 2007. Effects of ultraviolet (254 nm) irradiation on egg hatching and adult emergence of the flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum and the almond moth, Cadra cautella. Insect Science 7: 1536- 2442. Follet, P. A. 2001. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment for mango seed weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. 35: 95- 100. Follet, P. A. 2003. Lychee quality after hot-water immersion and x-ray irradiation quarantine treatments. Hort. Sci. 38: 1159- 1162. Follet, P. A. 2004. Irradiation to control insects in fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii. Radiation Phys. Chem. 71: 161- 164. Follet, P. A. 2006. Irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for Aspidiotus destructor (Homoptera: Diaspididae). J. Econ. Entomol. 99: 1138- 1142. Follet, P. A., and J. W. Armstrong. 2004. Revised irradiation doses to control melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly and oriental fruit fly (Diptera; Tehpritidae) and a generic dose for tephritid fruit flies. J. Econ. Entomol. 97: 1254- 1262. Follet, P. A., and R. Griffin. 2006. Irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for fresh horticultural commodities: research and regulations. ln C. H. Sommers and X. Fan (Eds.), Food irradiation research and technology, Black- well Publishing Professional, Ames, IA. Follet, P. A., and P. J. Lester. 2000. The lethal effects of gamma irradiation on larvae of the Huhu beetle, Prionoplus reticularis: a potential quarantine treatment for New Zealand export pine trees. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 94: 237- 242. Follet, P. A., M. M. Yang, K. H. Lu, and T. W. Chen. 2007. Irradiation for Postharvest Control of Quarantine Insects. Formosan Entomol. 27: 1- 15. Hallman, G. 1998. Ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Brasil. 27: 313- 323. Hallman, G. 2000. Expanding radiation quarantine treatments beyond fruit flies. Agr. Forest Entomol. 2: 85-95. Hallman, G. 2001. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment. ln: Food Irradiation: Principles and Applications. Ed. By Molins, R. A. New York: John Wiley. Hallman, G. 2004. Irradiation disinfestation of apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae) in hypoxic and low temperature storage. Econ. Entomol. 97: 1245- 1248. Hasan, M. J., and A. R. Khan. 1998. Effect of UV- radiation on the Uzi- fly, Exorista sorbillans Widemann, an endoparasitoid of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Insect Science & its Application 18: 87- 91. Helinski, M. E., A. G. Parker, and G. J. Knols. 2006. Radiation-induced sterility for pupal and adult stages of the malaria mosquito Adopheles arabiensis. Malaria Journal doi:10.1186/ 1475-2875-5-41. Hu, T., C. Chen, and W. K. Peng. 2002. The lethal effect of gamma radiation on Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius) (Coleopera: Anobiidae). Formosan Entomol. 22: 157- 162. (in Chinese with English abstract) Hu, T., C. Chen, and W. K. Peng. 2003. Lethal effect of gamma radiation on Sitophilus zeamais (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Formosan Entomol. 23: 145- 150. (in Chinese with English abstract) Johnson, J, and M. Marcotte. 1999. Irradiation control of insect pests of dried fruits and walnuts. Food Technol. 53: 46- 48. Lester, P. B., D. J. Rogers, R. J. Petry, P. G. Conolly, and P. B. Roberts. 2000. The lethal effects of gamma irradiation on larvae of the Huhu beetle, Prionoplus reticularis: a potential quarantine treatment for New Zealand export pine trees. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 94: 237- 242. Lin, J. Y., S. B. Horng, and C. C. Hung. 2003. Effects of gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of the carambola fruit borer, Eucosma notanthes Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Formosan Entomol. 23: 189- 197. (in Chinese with English abstract) Mansour, M. 2003. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for apples infested by codling moth (Lep., Tortricidae). J. Appl. Entomol. 127: 137- 141. Morris, S. C., and A. J. Jessup. 1994. Irradiation. In: Paull, R. E., and J. W. Armstrong, eds. Insect Pests and Fresh Horticultural Products: Treatments and Responses. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 163- 190. Nation, J. L., and A. K. Burditt. 1994. Irradiation, ln R. E. Paull and J. W. Armstrong eds., Insect pests and fresh horticultural products; treatments and responses. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 85- 102. Santa Cecilia, L. V. C., P. R. Reis, and J. C. Souza. 2002. About the nomenclature of coffee mealybug species in Minas Gerais and Espirito Santo States, Brazil. Neotropical Entomol. 31: 436- 445. Thomas, P. 2001. Irradiation of fruits and vegetables. ln: R. Molins, ed. Food Irradiation. Wiley and Sons, New York. 213- 240. USDA (United States Department of Agriculture). 2000. ScaleNet. Agricultural Research Service. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/scalenet/scalenet.htm. Williams, D. J. 1985. Australian mealybugs. British Museum (Natural History), London. Williams, D. J., and G. W. Watson. 1988. The Scale Insects of the Tropical South Pacific Region, Part 2: The Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae). CAB International, Wallingford. Williams, D. J., and M. C. Granara de Willink. 1992. Mealybugs of Central and South America. CAB International, Wallingford. Wang, S. J. 2004. Radio frequency heating: a potential method for post- harvest control in nuts and dry products, Journal of Zhejiang University Science. ISSN: 1009- 3095. WHO (World Health Organisation), 1994. Safety and nutritional adequacy of irradiated food. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. Yang, T. C. H., and G. A. Sacher. 1969. Effects of X- irradiation on some physiological properties of a developing Tribolium. In: Argonne National Laboratory Annual Report. 49- 50.
摘要: 
The increasing trade worldwide also increases the risk of pest outbreak in many uninfested areas. Many quarantine treatments are environmentally unsound and has obstacles in finding a balance to kill insect pests and minimizing adverse effects on the host commodities. Irradiation has been recognized and endorsed as a potential phytosanitary measure that could be an alternative to current quarantine treatments. A dosage of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy (Grays) were used to irradiate three different life stages (eggs, crawlers and adult life stages) of Planococcus minor, with an aim to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimum dosage to control P. minor. Cobalt 60 was the source of irradiation used. Irradiation has a significant effect on all life stages of P. minor, decreasing its' mortality, fecundity, oviposition and hatch rate. The adult was the most tolerant life stage in both mortality and hatch rate. All the different irradiated target life stage groups oviposited eggs but none of the eggs hatched at the most optimum dosage, 150 to 250 Gy. In this study, a dosage of 150 - 250 Gy could provide quarantine security for P. minor on all exported commodities. Custard apples (Annona squamosa) were also treated with 250 Gy and its quality was not affected by irradiation.

The increasing trade worldwide also increases the risk of pest outbreak in many uninfested areas. Many quarantine treatments are environmentally unsound and has obstacles in finding a balance to kill insect pests and minimizing adverse effects on the host commodities. Irradiation has been recognized and endorsed as a potential phytosanitary measure that could be an alternative to current quarantine treatments. A dosage of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy (Grays) were used to irradiate three different life stages (eggs, crawlers and adult life stages) of Planococcus minor, with an aim to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimum dosage to control P. minor. Cobalt 60 was the source of irradiation used. Irradiation has a significant effect on all life stages of P. minor, decreasing its' mortality, fecundity, oviposition and hatch rate. The adult was the most tolerant life stage in both mortality and hatch rate. All the different irradiated target life stage groups oviposited eggs but none of the eggs hatched at the most optimum dosage, 150 to 250 Gy. In this study, a dosage of 150 - 250 Gy could provide quarantine security for P. minor on all exported commodities. Custard apples (Annona squamosa) were also treated with 250 Gy and its quality was not affected by irradiation.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/30719
其他識別: U0005-2008200816420200
Appears in Collections:昆蟲學系

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