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標題: 兩種蟲生線蟲Steinernema abbasi及S. carpocapsae對埃及斑蚊(雙翅目:蚊科)致病力之比較
Comparing virulence of two entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema abbasi and S. carpocapsae, against the mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
作者: 陳冠仲, Kuan-Chung Chen
關鍵字: 蟲生線蟲;;埃及斑蚊;致病力
出版社: 昆蟲學系所
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The present study focused on comparing virulence of two entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema abbasi and S. carpocapsae, to the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The results showed that the first instar larvae and pupae of Ae. aegypti were not susceptible to both nematodes. The cumulative mortalities inoculated with 300 infective juveniles (IJs) per larva of S. abbasi against second to fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were 21.1, 30.0, and 97.8%, respectively, whereas those inoculated with S. carpocapsae were 45.6, 94.4, and 97.8%, respectively. The LT50 values of older instar larvae inoculated with both nematodes were shorter than those of younger instars. The LD50 values of fourth instar larvae inoculated with S. abbasi and S. carpocapsae were 122.6 and 44.5 IJs/larva at 48 h after inoculation. Encapsulated nematodes were calculated from dead third or fourth instar larvae of Ae. aepypti inoculated with 200 IJs/larva of S. abbasi or S. carpocapsae. Numbers of encapsulated S. abbasi in third and fourth instar larvae were 1-4, and 0-10, respectively, whereas those of S. carpocapsae in third and furth instar larvae were 0-9, and 0-8, respectively. However, the larvae with one nematode encapsulated were mostly observed. The cumulative mortalities of fourth instar larvae inoculated with S. abbasi and S. carpocapsae at 25°C were 93.3 and 95.6%, respectively, while those incubated at 20°C were lowest at only 20.0 and 76.7%, respectively. The mortalities of fourth instar larvae when inoculated with both nematodes immersed previously in four different depths of water were not significantly different. The cumulative mortalities of fourth instar larvae inoculated with both S. abbasi and S. carpocapsae which had been placed in water in a longer diameter of round plate were lower than those in a shorter diameter. The LT50 value of fourth instar larvae inoculated with S. carpocapsae in a longer diameter of round plate was longer than that in a shorter one. The mortalities of fourth larvae inoculated with both S. abbasi and S. carpocapsae, which had been kept in water for 10 or 20 days, were 33.3-48.9 and 80.0-85.6%, respectively, being not significantly different between treatments within the same species. However, the mortalities resulted from inoculations with those nematodes kept in water for 30 days were significantly lower than those for 10 and 20 days. In addition, the LT50 value of fourth instar larvae inoculated with S. carpocapsae kept for 20 days was longer than that for 10 days. Therefore, our experimental data provide information for further studies on potential application of the entomopathogenic nematodes as biological control agents against mosquitoes.

本論文利用兩種蟲生線蟲Steinernema abbasi 及 S. carpocapsae對埃及斑蚊(Aedes aegypti)幼蟲進行致病力之測定,發現埃及斑蚊第一齡幼蟲及蛹期均對兩種蟲生線蟲不具感受性。但S. abbasi 對第二、三及四齡幼蟲以侵染期幼蟲(infective juveniles, IJs)劑量300 IJs接種後72 h累積死亡率分別為21.1、30.0及97.8%;而以S. carpocapsae接種則死亡率分別為45.6、94.4及97.8%。此外,隨著埃及斑蚊幼蟲齡期越大,兩種蟲生線蟲對幼蟲所造成之LT50則隨之縮短。此兩種線蟲對本斑蚊第四齡幼蟲於接種後48 h 之LD50分別為122.6及44.5 IJs/larva。以200 IJs之S. abbasi 及S. carpocapsae接種埃及斑蚊第三齡及四齡幼蟲,S. abbasi於三齡幼蟲體內形成之囊體數目介於1-4個間,四齡幼蟲則介於0-10個;而S. carpocapsae於三齡幼蟲則介於0-9個,而四齡則介於0-8個之間。整體而言,斑蚊幼蟲體內含1個囊體的蟲數較多。兩種蟲生線蟲置於20、25及30°C環境下,對埃及斑蚊第四齡幼蟲之死亡率以25°C較高,分別為93.3及95.6%,而於20°C下死亡率最低分別為20.0及76.7%。而隨著溫度升高,S. carpocapsae對埃及斑蚊四齡幼蟲所需之LT50則隨之縮短。兩種蟲生線蟲對埃及斑蚊第四齡幼蟲於四種水體深度下所造成之死亡率彼此間無顯著差異。兩種蟲生線蟲於相同水深但不同表面積之水域處理,在直徑較大之水盤下接種第四齡幼蟲所造成之死亡率較低,隨著水盤直徑越大,S. carpocapsae對第四齡幼蟲所需之LT50則隨之增長。兩種線蟲經滯水10、20及30日對埃及斑蚊第四齡幼蟲所造成之死亡率,以10及20日處理分別為33.3-48.9和80.0-85.6%,且無顯著差異,而至第30日斑蚊之幼蟲死亡率顯著降低,滯水20日之S. carpocapsae對此斑蚊第四齡幼蟲所需之LT50較滯水10日者長。上述試驗提供蟲生線蟲對埃及斑蚊幼蟲之致病力之初步探討資料,此供進一步生物防治之參考。
其他識別: U0005-2007200916025700
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