Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/30746
標題: 東方果實蠅(Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel))雄蟲誘殺效力之評估
Assessment of the attract-and-kill effectiveness against male adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)
作者: 莊益源
Chuang, Yi-Yuan
關鍵字: http://etds.lib.nchu.edu.tw/etdservice/view_metadata?etdun=U0005-2407200910143800;東方果實蠅;長效型誘殺器;含毒甲基丁香油;新尼古丁類殺蟲劑;誘殺系統;果實蠅區域防治
出版社: 昆蟲學系所
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摘要: 
The present study designed a trap with longer efficiency to improve the effectiveness of the traps currently used for the control of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Field tests of the effectiveness of the traps were conducted in different orchards in Kaohsiung and Pingtung areas. A modified trap, commonly used for monitoring population densities of the oriental fruit fly, in combination with methyl eugenol (ME) impregnated fiberboards, was chosen as the control. The results showed that the average number of the fruit fly adults caught in the longer efficiency trap was significantly higher by 1.5 - 2.1 times than the control. The volume of poisoned methyl eugenol used in the longer efficiency traps was significantly reduced by 20.3 to 27.7% as compared with that used in the control.

Field tests were conducted to evaluate and compare the attract-and-kill effectiveness of an improved longer efficiency trap with various traps available in the market, including the Improved McPhail trap, Victor trap and Yi-shan trap for B. dorsalis male adults. The results showed that both Victor trap and the improved longer efficiency trap were better than the other two traps in terms of the mean number of attract-and-kill effectiveness. When the upper cap of the improved longer efficiency traps was coated with 8 different colors for the field tests, it was found that, although the yellow cap showed a slightly higher attract-and-kill effectiveness than the others. When the improved longer efficiency traps were fully coated in 8 different colors, the trap coated with yellow had the highest mean number of males trapped and exhibited a significant difference compared to the traps coated in any of the 7 other colors. In addition, field tests were carried out to compare the improved longer efficiency trap coated with yellow to the other three types of traps. The results showed that both improved longer efficiency trap and the Victor trap were better than the other two traps with a mean number of 74.8 and 64.9 males trapped, respectively, compared to the Improved McPhail trap and Yi-shan trap at 28 and 9.1 males, respectively. Consequently, it was found that the traps coated with yellow were best in attract-and-kill effectiveness against male flies of B. dorsalis.

Laboratory bioassays and field trials were conducted to evaluate an attract-and-kill system using methyl eugenol with neonicotinoid insecticides against B. dorsalis males. In laboratory bioassays, mortality of male flies resulting from the conventional toxicant, naled, was 98.3-100% at 24 through 72 h after treatment, whereas the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and acetamiprid caused only 60-80%. In the assays of residual effect, naled was persistent up to 96 wk, whereas imidacloprid or acetamiprid was persistent up to 150 wk, resulting in 38.9 or 61.2% male mortality, respectively. Imidacloprid, in particular, caused a delayed lethal effect on flies. In another experiment, male mortality within 28 wk from clothianidin, and other neonicotinoid insecticides, was ca. 80% after exposure for 24 h, suggesting a delayed lethal effect similar to those treated with imidacloprid, and mortality was up to 91.8%, if observed at 72 h after treatment. Using an improved longer efficiency trap for simulating field application, addition of imidacloprid or acetamiprid maintained 40.1 or 64.3% male mortality, respectively, when assayed once every 2 wk from traps placed in orchards for 42 wk without changing the poison, whereas incorporation with naled resulted in as high as 98.1% after 34 wk and ca. 80% at 42 wk. This study also suggests that neonicotinoid insecticides could be used to be an alternative for broad-spectrum insecticides as toxicants in fly traps.

We introduced the improved longer efficiency trap into an area-wide fruit fly management program in the wax-apple management areas in Donggang Township, Pingtung. The results showed a significant reduction in fruit fly densities during major harvest periods in the management areas. The peak fruit fly population densities in Donggang management areas were less than 21.7 and 49.7 times compared to the check areas of Nan-jhou, Pingtung, surveyed in 2007 and 2008, respectively. A certain proportion of fruits without bagging grown in Dong-gang management areas were free from the damage by the fruit fly and exhibited a significant difference compared to the mean damage rate of 61.7% in the check areas. The results showed that even in a small area under appropriate management with male annihilation technique reduced the damages by fruit flies during major fruiting periods.

本論文設計一種長效型果實蠅誘殺器,在田間針對東方果實蠅(Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)) (Diptera: Tephritidae) 進行誘殺效能與持效性測試,結果顯示長效型誘殺器在誘殺蟲數與對照組間均有顯著差異,並可節省20.3- 27.7%含毒甲基丁香油之使用量,可連續使用四個月,具有方便田間使用及節省更換勞力之優點。
田間測試開模量產之改良型長效誘殺器之誘殺效果,與改良式麥氏誘殺器、渦旋式蜂蠅誘捕器及一善牌瓜果實蠅誘捕器等三種市售產品進行比較,結果以渦旋式蜂蠅誘捕器平均誘殺蟲數最多,與其次之改良型長效誘殺器間無顯著差異,但多於另二者的誘殺蟲數呈顯著差異。分別將改良型長效誘殺器之上蓋及全組外觀塗裝黃、橙、白、紫、綠、藍、紅、黑色等8種不同顏色進行田間測試,測試結果塗裝黃色者誘殺效果最佳,平均誘殺蟲數最多,與塗裝其它各顏色者之間有顯著差異。將改良型長效誘殺器全組塗裝黃色後再與上述三種市售誘殺器進行田間測試,結果其平均誘殺蟲數最多,顯示黃色對東方果實蠅雄蠅有較佳之誘引效果。
評估甲基丁香油添加新尼古丁類殺蟲劑(neonicotinoid insecticides)後,對東方果實蠅雄蠅之誘殺致死效果,添加益達胺(imidacloprid)者呈現延遲致死效果,至72小時後死亡率可提高至79.1%,高於24小時之55.2%有顯著差異;而添加亞滅培(acetamiprid)者之平均誘殺死亡率為66.7%。在連續150週的室內殘效測試中,至第96 週,添加乃力松(naled)者誘殺率降為0,而添加益達胺及亞滅培二者,仍維持相對穩定之誘殺率。另測試添加可尼丁(clothianidin)者,亦有類似添加益達胺者之中毒癥狀與延遲致死效應,72小時後之死亡率可高達91.8%。在連續42週模擬田間使用狀況下,添加益達胺與亞滅培者,平均誘殺率分別為40.1% 及64.3%。而添加乃力松者,至第34 週時,平均誘殺率達98.1% ,與新配製含乃力松之誘殺劑間無顯著差異。結果顯示新尼古丁類殺蟲劑添加於甲基丁香油中呈現穩定之持效誘殺效能,評估相當具有潛力應用在東方果實蠅的滅雄防治技術中。
將此長效型誘殺器導入果實蠅區域防治(area-wide control)架構中,評估對果實蠅之防治效果,由連續2年定期之果實蠅密度監測資料,顯示在區域防治區可達全年持效控管果實蠅族群之功效,與無使用誘殺器之對照區比較,分別在2007及2008年之果實蠅高峰期達到降低21.7與49.7倍密度的效果。2008年調查無套袋處理之蓮霧果實在生育期之受害情形,東港防治區達到零受害之成效,低於南州對照區之平均受害率61.7%呈顯著差異。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/30746
其他識別: U0005-2407200910143800
Appears in Collections:昆蟲學系

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