Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/30799
標題: 昆蟲誘導甘藍防禦反應對斜紋夜盜蛾及其寄生蜂之影響
The effect of herbivore-induced cabbage on the generalist pest, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) and its parasitoid, Snellenius manilae (Hymenoptera:Braconidae)
作者: 李函蓉
Lee, Han-Jung
關鍵字: 十字花科;Brassica;植物次級代謝物質;廣食者;專食者;寄生蜂;三階層系統;secondary metabolites;specialist;generalist;parasitoid;tri-trophic system
出版社: 昆蟲學系所
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摘要: 
植物受到昆蟲、病原菌以及其他草食者取食後可藉由產生直接與間接防禦對抗攻擊者。直接防禦是利用植物在受到攻擊後所產生的物理或化學防禦物質對抗害物;而間接防禦則是植物在受到害物攻擊後,以改變誘引物質,例如揮發性物質或蜜源等,之質量的方式吸引天敵,進而抑制草食者的取食。過去的實驗指出,植物會以不同之防禦物質對抗不一樣的害物。例如:刺吸式口器的昆蟲主要誘導植物水楊酸路徑的相關基因表現,而咀嚼式口器之昆蟲則是誘導茉莉花酸路近相關之基因表現。另一方面,由於植物與昆蟲之間有共演化之關係,學者推論,食性廣泛度不同之昆蟲亦會誘導植物產生不同之防禦物質。然而,昆蟲食性廣泛度與植物防禦反應之間的關係尚未找到一致之相關性,且於多種害物同時傷害下之植物反應與其對害蟲天敵的影響,也極少被探討。本試驗利用甘藍,專食性昆蟲-紋白蝶,廣食性昆蟲-斜紋夜盜蛾及馬尼拉小繭蜂作為農業生態系中三階層關係之探討。此試驗的結果顯示,在化學物質方面,多酚氧化酵素的活性會被紋白蝶幼蟲取食所抑制,但不會被斜紋夜盜蛾及紋白蝶與斜紋夜盜蛾複合處理所影響。在斜紋夜盜蛾的短期生長表現實驗中,紋白蝶誘導後的甘藍會降低斜紋夜盜蛾的消耗食物轉換率,而複合處理組則會降低斜紋夜盜蛾的取食量。最後在馬尼拉小繭蜂之生長表現中,其生長表現不會受到顯著影響,然而,馬尼拉小繭蜂之卵加幼蟲期與繭重在被寄生的斜紋夜盜蛾取食斜紋夜盜蛾誘導之甘藍有延長與下降的趨勢。經由本實驗的結果推論紋白蝶於取食後會誘導出較多斜紋夜盜蛾無法代謝之次級代謝物質,而多種昆蟲同時出現時會產生較多取食忌避物質;而馬尼拉小繭蜂生長表現並不容易被植物直接防禦所影響。未來在於植物、廣食者及專食者及其天敵之研究仍需做更多的努力以了解三階層間共演化之關係。

Multiple herbivorous species may attack the host plant simultaneously in the field. To protect themselves, plants would exhibit some direct and/or indirect defenses to decrease damages after herbivory. In the past, scientists have studied the specific herbivore-induced defense mechanisms, and found different responses might be induced by different insects. Based on the insect-plant coevolution ideas, different specialized herbivores might induce different plant defense. However, this concept has not been proved. Besides, when plants were damaged by multiple insects simultaneously, the induced response of plants may change. In the other hand, the plant defense response may be more complicated when consider the effect to higher trophic level, for example, natural enemies. Plant direct defense is not only used to against herbivores, but may also affect natural enemies by decrease host insect quality or immunity. How plants balanced between direct and indirect defense under mono- or multiple-pests challenge is still one of the core question of coevolution theory. In this study, Brassica oleracea, Pieris rapae, Spodoptera litura, and Snellenius manilae were used to investigate the interaction among plant, insect, and natural enemy. The results showed polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was significantly depressed by P. rapae induction, but not by S. litura at the seventy-two hour short-term insect performance. The depression of PPO activity, however, did not increase insect performances. Even, S. litura fed on P. rapae treated cabbage had the lowest ECI. In insect short-term experiment (72 hr.), S. litura fed on combine treated cabbage showed lowest RCR and total consumed area. And, in the long-term parasitoid performance experiment, there was a tendency that egg and larvae development time, and cocoon weight of Sn. manilae were prolong and lighter, when their host insects fed on S. litura induced cabbage. In this case, P. rapae induced more secondary metabolites that S. litura cannot detoxify or tolerance, and multiple herbivore attack induced more deterrents was expect. Sn. manilae growth performances were not easily influenced by insect induced cabbage plant. The strategy of integrated pest management may be affected after thoroughly to understand the relationship between plants, herbivores, their natural enemies, that the relation between tri-trophic system need more effort on it.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/30799
其他識別: U0005-2308201302474100
Appears in Collections:昆蟲學系

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