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The effect of herbivore-induced cabbage on the generalist pest, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) and its parasitoid, Snellenius manilae (Hymenoptera:Braconidae)
|關鍵字:||十字花科;Brassica;植物次級代謝物質;廣食者;專食者;寄生蜂;三階層系統;secondary metabolites;specialist;generalist;parasitoid;tri-trophic system||出版社:||昆蟲學系所||引用:||Agbogba BC and Powell W. 2007. Effect of the presence of a nonhost herbivore on the response of the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae to host-infested cabbage plants. Journal of Chemical Ecology 33: 2229-2235. Agrawal AA, Gorski PM, and Tallamy DW. 1999. Polymorphism in plant defense against herbivory: constitutive and induced resistance in Cucumis sativus. Journal of Chemical Ecology 25 (10): 2285-2304. Agrawal AA. 2000. Specificity of induced resistance in wild radish: causes and consequences for two specialist and two generalist caterpillars. OIKOS 89 (3): 493-500. Agrawal AA, Janssen A, Bruin J, Posthumus MA, and Sabelis MW. 2002. An ecological cost of plant defence: attractiveness of bitter cucumber plants to natural enemies of herbivores. Ecology Letters 5: 377-385. Agrawal AA and Kurashige NS. 2003. 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Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 20 (11): 1332-1345 Zong N and Wang CZ. 2007. Larval feeding induced defensive responses in tobacco: comparison of two sibling species of Helicoverpa with different direct breadths. Planta 226: 215-224.||摘要:||
Multiple herbivorous species may attack the host plant simultaneously in the field. To protect themselves, plants would exhibit some direct and/or indirect defenses to decrease damages after herbivory. In the past, scientists have studied the specific herbivore-induced defense mechanisms, and found different responses might be induced by different insects. Based on the insect-plant coevolution ideas, different specialized herbivores might induce different plant defense. However, this concept has not been proved. Besides, when plants were damaged by multiple insects simultaneously, the induced response of plants may change. In the other hand, the plant defense response may be more complicated when consider the effect to higher trophic level, for example, natural enemies. Plant direct defense is not only used to against herbivores, but may also affect natural enemies by decrease host insect quality or immunity. How plants balanced between direct and indirect defense under mono- or multiple-pests challenge is still one of the core question of coevolution theory. In this study, Brassica oleracea, Pieris rapae, Spodoptera litura, and Snellenius manilae were used to investigate the interaction among plant, insect, and natural enemy. The results showed polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was significantly depressed by P. rapae induction, but not by S. litura at the seventy-two hour short-term insect performance. The depression of PPO activity, however, did not increase insect performances. Even, S. litura fed on P. rapae treated cabbage had the lowest ECI. In insect short-term experiment (72 hr.), S. litura fed on combine treated cabbage showed lowest RCR and total consumed area. And, in the long-term parasitoid performance experiment, there was a tendency that egg and larvae development time, and cocoon weight of Sn. manilae were prolong and lighter, when their host insects fed on S. litura induced cabbage. In this case, P. rapae induced more secondary metabolites that S. litura cannot detoxify or tolerance, and multiple herbivore attack induced more deterrents was expect. Sn. manilae growth performances were not easily influenced by insect induced cabbage plant. The strategy of integrated pest management may be affected after thoroughly to understand the relationship between plants, herbivores, their natural enemies, that the relation between tri-trophic system need more effort on it.
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