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|標題:||蘇鐵白輪盾介殼蟲天敵Cybocephalus flavocapitis Smith之生命表與其於台灣之分布
Temperature-dependent development and distribution of Cybocephalus flavocapitis Smith (Copeopetra: Cybocephalidae) predator of Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi(Hemiptera: Diaspididae) , in Taiwan
|關鍵字:||蘇鐵屬;Cycas;發育時間;有效積溫;發育臨界低溫;最大熵值;分布;Development time;Degree-days;Thermal threshold;Maximum entropy;distribution||出版社:||昆蟲學系所||引用:||Bailey, R., N. T. Chang, and P. Y. Lai. 2011. Two-sex life table and predation rate of Cybocephalus flavocapitis Smith (Coleoptera: Cybocephalidae) reared on Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), in Taiwan. J. Asia-Pacific Entomol. 14: 433-439. Campbell, A., B. D. Frazier, N. Gilbert, A. P. Gutierrez, and M. Mackauer. 1974. Temperature requirements of some aphids and their parasites. J. Appl. Ecol. 11: 431-438. Cave, R. D. 2006. Biological control agents of the cycad aulacaspis scale, Aulacaspis yasumatsui. Proc. Fl. St. Hort. Soc.119: 422-424. Cave, R. D., C. Sciacchetano, and R. Diaz. 2009.Temperature-dependent development of the Cycad Aulacaspis scale, Aulacaspis yasumatsui (Hemiptera:diaspididae). Flo. Entomol. 92: 578-581. Chun, R., L. Huide, L. Hongjun, H. Junjua, and C. Xusheng. 2003. Effects of temperature on development and reproduction of Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody Younga. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica 30: 383-388. Diaz R., W.A. Overholt, A. Samayoa, F. Sosa, D. Cordeau, J. Medal, 2008. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and potential distribution of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum (Solanaceae). Biocontrol Science and Technology 18: 193-207. Huang, S., H. T. Hsieh, K. Fang, and Y. C. Chiang. 2004. Patterns of genetic variation and demography of Cycas taitungensis in Taiwan. The Botanical Review 70: 86-92. SAS Institute Inc. 2004. SAS/IML 9.1 User’s Guide. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc. Smith, T. R., and R. Bailey. 2007. A new species of Cybocephalus (Coleoptera: Cybocephalidae) from Taiwan and a new distribution record for Cybocephalus nipponicus. The Coleopterists Bulletin 61: 503-508. Su, T.H. 1999. Parasitism of Arrhenophagus chionaspidis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) on Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Department of Entomology, National Chung Hsing University Master Thesis. 1-46. Chao, J.T., and P.Y. Lai, 2005. Taiwan CAS invasion timeline. http://www.cycadsg.org/publications/CAS/Taiwan-CAS-Invasion-Timeline.pdf. Accessed May 2012. Digital archive.tw, 2011. Available from: http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/Search/Search.jsp?QS=Cycas revolute [Accessed April 2012]. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD), 2005. Available from: http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/ [Accessed July 2011]. Hijmans, R. J., S. E. Cameron, J. L. Parra, P. Jones, and A. Jarvis. 2005. Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology. 25: 1965–1978. Howard, F.W., A. Hamon, M. McLaughlin, and T. Weissling. 1999. Aulacaspis yasumatsui (Homoptera: Sternorrhyncha: Diaspididae), a scale insect pest of cycads recently introduced into Florida. Florida Entomol. 82: 14-27. Phillips, S. J., R. P. Anderson, and R. E.Schapire. 2006. Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling 190: 231-259. Smith, T.R., and R. Bailey. 2007. A new species of Cybocephalus (Coleoptera: Cybocephalidae) fromTaiwan and a new distribution record for Cybocephalus nipponicus. Coleopt. Bull. 61: 503–508. Takagi, S. 1977. A new species of Aulacaspis associated with a cycad in Thailand (Homoptera: Cocoidea). Insecta Matsumurana New Series 11: 63-72. Wu, L. W., S. H. Yen, D. C. Lees, and Y. F. Hsu. 2010.Elucidating genetic signatures of native and introduced populations of the cycad blue, Chilades pandava to Taiwan:a threat both to Sago Palm and to native Cycas populations worldwide. Biol. Invasions 12: 2649-2669. Yang, Y. P., H. Y. Liu, S. Y. Lu and B. L. Shih. 1998. Flora of Taiwan. Second Edition, vol. 1, Council of Agriculture, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC, 1218.||摘要:||
Cycas taitungensis Shen, Hill, Tsou & Chen (Cycadales: Cycadaceae) is an endangered species in Taiwan and it has been attacked by Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), a mayor pest of Cycad plants. Its natural enemy, Cybocephalus flavocapitis Smith (Coleoptera: Cybocephalidae) development time was evaluated in this study, and egg duration, immature development time at five constant temperatures was also tested. Egg period ranged from 31 days at 15oC to 4 days at 35°C, no development was completed at 15 and 30°C. Immature development time ranges from 71 days at 20oC to 29 days at 30oC. Lower threshold temperature for all stages is between 11-15oC. For reach adulthood, 490 degree-days are necessary. Pre-pupae and pupae together are the longest period in which no predation occurs.
Occurrence data of C. flavocapitis and C. nipponicus at 34 localities were sampled in 10 counties across Taiwan. Five distribution maps were modeled using Maximum Entropy Modeling (Maxent). The number of C. flavocapitis collected is consistent with the Maxent model; Yilan and Kaohsiung are the counties with high percentage of better conditions and high number of beetles. Pingtung and Taichung counties have 57 - 91% of suitability and C. nipponicus was more abundant as well. The Taiwan Cycad Nature Reserve’s conditions are not favorable for C. nipponicus; the search of other control agents using predicting models, and evaluate the agent’s effectiveness must be done before the potential control agent is released.
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