Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/30877
標題: 以分生技術找尋求葉芽線蟲Aphelenchoides besseyi寄生基因相關之標記
Using molecular techniques to find the linkage marker of Aphelenchoides besseyi parasitism gene
作者: 謝淑華
Hsieh, Shu-Hua
關鍵字: Aphelenchoides besseyi;葉芽線蟲(Aphelenchoides besseyi);parasitism gene.;Random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD);Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS);寄生基因;隨機增幅核酸多形性(RAPD);核醣體DNA非轉錄區間(ITS)
出版社: 植物病理學系所
引用: 林奕耀、王貴美、蔡東纂。1992。秋石斛葉芽線蟲病之發生。植保會刊。34:202-215 游培琪、 蔡東纂。2004。山蘇花葉芽線蟲在台灣之發生。植物病理學會刊。13:35-44。 曾巧燕。2003。台灣葉芽線蟲族群間之種內變異。國立中興大學植物病理學系士論文。 蔡東纂。1997。台灣柑橘線蟲之發生及其生物型種內變異。植病會刊 7:1-9 Allen, M. W. 1952.Taxonomic status of the bud and leaf nematodes related to Aphelenchoides fragariae (Ritzema Bos, 1891). Proc. Helminth. Soc. Wash., 19:108-120. Bird DM, Opperman CH, Jones SJM, Baillie DL. 1999. The Caenorhabditis elegans genome: a guide in the post genomics age. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 37:247–65 Bridge, J. M.Luc and R.A. Plowright.1990.Nematode parasites of rice.Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Walliongord, UK:CAB Internartional. p69-108. Burrows P R, Halford P D, Evans K. 1996. Estimation of genetic variation between British populations of the potatocyst nematode Globodera pallida using RAPD-PCR. Molecular Ecology 5:697-701. Carta LK, Skantar AM, Handoo ZA. 2001. Molecular, morphological and thermal characters of 19 Pratylenchus spp. and relatives using the D3 segment of the nuclear LSU rRNA gene. Nematropica 31:195–209 Caswell-Chen, E. P., V. M. Williamson, and B. B. Westerdahl. 1993. Applied biotechnology in nematology. Supplement to the Journal of Nematology 25: 719-730. Cayrol, J. C., and Dalmasso, A.1975. Affinit sintersp cifiques entiretrois nematodes de feuilles(A. fragariae, A. ritzemabosi, and A. besseyi).Cahiers O.R.S.T.O.M., S rie Biology Nematology. 10:215-225 Cenis, J. L. 1993 Identification of four major Meloidogyne spp. By random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD-PCR). Phytopathology 83:76-78 Chen P, Roberts PA, Metcalf AE, Hyman BC. 2003. Nucleotide substitution patterning within the Meloidogyne rDNA D3 region and its evolutionary implications. J. Nematol. 35:404–10 Davis, E. L., Allen, R., and Hussey, R. S. 1994. Developmental expression of esophageal gland antigens and their detection in stylet secretions of Meloidogyne incognita. Fundam. Appl. Nematol. 17:255-262. Davis, E. L., Hussey, R. S., Baum ,T. J., Bakker, J., and Schots, A.,Marie-No¨elle Rosso and Pierre Abad. 2000. NEMATODE PARASITISM GENES. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 38:365–96 Davis, E. 1998. Genomic organization of four β-1,4-endoglucanase genes in plant-parasitic cyst nematodes and its evolutionary implications. Gene 220:61-70. Docharme,E.p. and Brichfied, W.1956.Physiologic races of burrowing nematode. Phytopathology.Ver46:615-616. Franklin, M.T. and M.R. Siddiqi. 1972. Aphelenchoides besseyi. Commonwealth Institute of Helminthology Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes Set 1, No. 4. Gao, B., R. Allen, T. Maier, E. L. Davis, T. J. Baum, and R. S. Hussey. 2001. Identification of putative parasitism genes expressed in the esophageal gland cells of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 14:1247-1254. Gao, B., R. Allen, T. Maier, E. L. Davis, T. J. Baum, and R. S. Hussey. 2003. The parasitome of the phytonematode Heterodera glycines. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 16:720-726. Goodey, T. revised by J . B. Goodey, 1963. Soil and freshwater nematodes. London : Methuen 2nd Edn 544 pp. Hillis, D. M. and Dixon, M. T. 1991.Ribosomal DNA molecular evolution and phylogenetic inference. Q, Rev. Biol. 66:411-453 Huang, C. S., Huang, S. P., and Chiang, Y. C. 1979. Mode of reproduction and sex ratio of rice white-tip nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi. Nematologica 25:255-260 Huang, G, B. Gao, T. Maier, R. Allen, E. L. Davis, T. J. Baum, and R. S. Hussey. 2003. A profile of putative parasitism genes expressed in the esophageal gland cells of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 16:376-381. Hunt, H. J. 1993.Aphelenchida,Longidoridae and Trichodoridae:Their systematics and biomic.p57.CAB International,Wallingford,UK. Ibrahim, S. K., Perry, R. N., Burrows, P. R., and Hooper, D. J. 1994. Differentiation of species and population of Aphelenchoides and from Ditylenchus angustus using a fragment of ribosomal DNA. J. Nematol.26:412-421 Ikonen, E. K.2001. Population growth of two aphelenchoide nematodes with six difference fungi as a food source. Nematology:International Journal of Fundamental& Applied Nematological Research. P9-15. JANSSEN, R., BAKICEJR. ,& GOMMERFS. ,J . 1990. Assessing intraspecific variations in virulence iGnl obodera rostochiensis and G. pallida. Revue Nématol., 13 :11-15 JANSSEN, R., BAKKEJ.R &, GOMMERSF, J. 1990. Selection of virulent and avirulent lineosf Globodera rostochiensis for the HI resistance gene in Solanum tuberosum spp. Andigena Cl? 1673. Revue Nématol., 13 : 265-268 JANSSEN, R., BAKKEJ.R &, GOMMERSF, J 1991. Mendelian proof a gene for gene relationship between viruluence of Globodera rostochiensis and H1 resistance gene in Solanum tuberosum ssp .andigena CPC1673. Nematology,1991, Vol 14(2), 213-219. JONES, F. G. W., PARROTTD, M. & ROSS, G. S. J. (1967). The population genetics of the potato cyst-nematode, Heterodera rostochiensis :mathematical models to simulate the effects of growing eelworm-resistant potatoes bred from Solanunz tuberosum ssp. andigena. Ann. appl. Biol., 60 : 151-171. Maggenti,1981.Nematodes as parasite of the aerial parts of plant(shoot),in General Nematology(P.Star Mortimer,ed), p201-207 MÜLLER, J. 1998. New pathotypes of the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm.) differentiated on alien genes for resistance in beet (Beta vulgaris). Fundam. Appl. Nematol. 21: 519-526. Nogel, K. A. and Perry, V. G. 1963. A foliar disease of chrysanthemum incited by the strawberry summer crimp nematode. Proc. Soil Crop. Fla. 22:162-166 PARROTDT., M. (1981). Evidence for gene-to-gene relationships between resistance gene HI from Solanunz tuberosum ssp. andigena and a gene in Globodera rostochiensis, and between Hz from S. multidissectuna and a gene in G. pallida. Nematologica, 27 : 372-384. Phillips MS and Trudgill DL. 1983. Variation in the ability of G. pallida to produce females on potato clones bred from Solanum vernei or S. tuberosum ssp. igena CPC 2802. Nematologica. 29:217-216 Powers, T. 2004. NEMATODEMOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS: From Bands to Barcodes. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 2004. 42:367–83 Popeijus, H., Overmars, H., Jones, J., Blok, V., Goverse, Helder, J., Schots, A., Bakker, J., and Smant, G. 2000. Degradation of plant cell walls by a nematode. Nature 406:36-37. Reid A, Podrucka K. 2004. Interspecific genetic diversity of 50 Steinernema species as determined by RFLP analysis of the ITS region. Nematology: In press Ritzema Bos,J.1888. Arch. Mus. Teyler, Ser.2 3:545-558 Rouppe van der Voort JNAM, Eck H van, Zandvoort P van, Overmars H, Helder J, et al. 1999. Linkage analysis by genotyping sibling populations: a genetic map of the potato cyst nematode using a “pseudo- F2” mapping strategy. Mol. Gen. Genet. 261:1021–31 Rigges, R. D. 1991 Resistance-breaking races of plant parasitic nematodes. In:Nickle, W. R.(eds)Manual of Agricultural Nematology. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York. p827-851 Ruess, L. Z. apata,E.J.G.,and Dighton,J.2000.Food preferences of a fungal-feeding Aphelenchoides species. Nematology:International Journal of Fundamental& Applied Nematological Research. P 223-230. Smant, G., Stokkermans, J. P. W. G., Yan, Y., de Boer, J. M., Baum, T. J., Wang, X., Hussey, R. S., Gommers, F. J., Henrissat, B., Davis, E. L., Helder, J., Shots, A., and Bakker, J. 1998. Endogenous cellulases in animals: isolation of β-1,4-endoglucanase genes from two species of plant-parasitic cyst nematodes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95:4906-4911. Stone AR, Holliday JM, Mathias PL, and Parrot DM. 1986. A selective survey of potato cyst nematode pathotypes in Great Britain. Plant pathology. 35:18-24 Sturhan, D.1971. Biological race. In:Zuckerman, B. M., Mai, W. F. and Rohde, R. A. eds. Plant parasitic nematodes. Vol.2.Cytogenetics, Host Parasitic interactions, and Physiology. Academic Press. New York.P 51-72 Thorne.1961. Principles of Nematology. McGraw-Hill, New York. Togashi, K., and Hoshino, S. 2001. Distribution pattern and mortality of the white tip nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae), among rice seeds. Nematology, 2001, Vol. 3(1), 17-24. Triantaphyllou, A.C. 1973. Environmental sex differentiation of nematodes in relation to pest management. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 11:441–462. Trudgill DL.1991. Resistance to and tolerance of plant parasite nematodes in plant. Annual review Phytopathology. 29:167-92 Williams, J. G. K., Kubelik, A. R. K., Livak, J. L., Rafalsku, J. A., and Tingey, S. V. 1990. DNA polymorphisms amplified by random primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acid Res. 18:6531-6535 Yan, Y., Smant, G., Stokkermans, J., Qin, L., Helder, J., Baum, T., Schots, A., and Davis, E. 1998. Genomic organization of four β-1,4-endoglucanase genes in plant-parasitic cyst nematodes and its evolutionary implications. Gene 220:61-70. Zijlstra C, Lever AEM, Uenk BJ, Van Silfhout CH. 1995. Differences between ITS regions of isolates of root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi. Phytopathology 85:1231–37
摘要: 
現今發現的線蟲寄生基因(parasitism gene),多是在地下部寄生性的包囊線蟲或是根瘤線蟲中尋得,地上部寄生性線蟲仍未有相關報導。由於Aphelenchoides besseyi寄生變異性的發現,本研究以山蘇寄生性及非山蘇寄生性之A. besseyi族群為模式來探討寄生基因。所收集到的葉芽線蟲族群,經光學顯微鏡測量其各部位長度比例之平均值,與A. besseyi模本範圍無異,再佐以掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察其細部構造,口唇部明顯與蟲體區隔開來,尾部有3-4個分叉,側區之側線數為4條,確定田間所分離之葉芽族群均為A. besseyi。經單一幼蟲之培養後,本次試驗中三個山蘇族群均無法行孤雌生殖,但水稻來源之族群除了Al外,在六個重複試驗中有2-4重複具有孤雌生殖之現象,顯示族群中應有部分個體具有孤雌生殖的能力。以RAPD中s1到s20的引子增幅不同來源A. besseyi 族群之DNA;s4、s15和s18能區別草苺、水稻和山蘇上A. besseyi族群的差異性,以s4增幅出水稻和草莓上之差異性片段設計出引子對Ab2和As2,其中As2無法重現其專一性,Ab2則可以350 bp之片段區分出山蘇和非山蘇來源之A. besseyi族群。以ITS引子對,增幅十個不同寄主來源的A. besseyi族群,發現山蘇來源之族群除了在1200 bp具有ITS片段,在300 bp處亦有片段被增幅出來,再用該引子對增幅雜交子代,發現能在山蘇上寄生之子代,在300bp處亦有相同分子量之片段被增幅出來。以山蘇族群為主要父(母)本,藉著單一線蟲交配(single mating)分析其子代,發現山蘇來源之母本族群與水稻來源之父本族群雜交子代之產生率僅27%;而這些子代族群皆無法寄生於山蘇;但山蘇來源族群互交繁衍子代之產生率為78%,子代在山蘇上寄生之比例則為87%;代表控制線蟲寄生山蘇之基因呈現隱性且不只一對。

The reported nematode parasitism genes were found in underground cyst nematode and root-knot nematode, there are no reports on above-ground plant parasitic nematodes. Aphelenchoides besseyi isolates from different host originates were found to have different abilities on parasiting bird-nest fern(Asplenium spp.). This could be a model system to study the A. besseyi parasitism gene. The reproduction pattern of A. besseyi is controversial, single larva culturing tests were conducted to test if the isolates could undergo parthenogenesis, and six A. besseyi out of ten isolates have individuals that could reproduced parthenogenetically. Using s1 to s20 RAPD primers to amplify eight A. besseyi isolates, s4, s15, and s18 could differentiate strawberry, paddy rice, and the fern A. besseyi isolates. The s4 resulted a specific fragment on paddy rice and strawberry isolates for us to design 2 sets of primers, Ab2 and As2. As2 was unable to repeat its specificity when challenged with more isolates; Ab2 amplified a 350 bp fragment that could differentiate parasitic and non- parasitic isolates on fern. ITS primers were also used to amplify all A. besseyi isolates, additional to the ITS region, there is a fragment about 300 bp that associated with the bird-nest fern parasitic isolates. Using fern isolates as maternal line and rice isolates as paternal line for single mating, the successful crossing rate was 27%, and all the offspring were not able to parasite on fern. The reciprocal mating between fern isolates had 78% successful crossing rate and 87% of the offspring could parasite on fern. From these results, we speculated that the ability for A. besseyi to parasite on fern was controlled by more than one pair of recessive genes.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/30877
其他識別: U0005-1707200611222000
Appears in Collections:植物病理學系

Show full item record
 

Google ScholarTM

Check


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.