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標題: 填充通孔之電鍍銅配方的開發
Formula Development for Through-Hole Filling by Copper Electroplating
作者: 嚴之君
Yan, Jhih-Jyun
關鍵字: 通孔電鍍銅;Through-hole filling;酸效應;蝴蝶填充技術;電鍍添加劑;H-型填充技術;Acid effect;Butterfly technology;Electroplating Additives;H-type TH filling
出版社: 化學工程學系所
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  在現代人的生活裡,人們所使用的電子產品要求輕薄短小、多功能、傳訊快速,為了達到這個目標,電子元件線寬距離縮小與高密度互聯(High Density Interconnection, HDI)的技術蓬勃發展。晶片封裝技術也將從二維空間連結轉向三維立體堆疊技術邁進。然而在電鍍通孔方面,因為要求體積小,作為訊息傳遞通道的孔洞也隨之細小,深寬比增加,使得電鍍之電力線在孔中與孔口處分布不均,增加了超級填孔(Super-filling)的困難度。為此,許多人在鍍液中添加了許多化學添加劑,但是越多的添加劑卻也使電鍍時的機制變得更加複雜。
  眾多添加劑中,歸類為平整劑的為含有四級銨(N+)的有機雜環類化合物(Azole Compound),此添加劑可以阻止銅離子在電力線分布密集的的孔口處快速沉積;而有機硫化物添加劑作為加速劑又稱為光澤劑,能使銅離子快速沉積;此外,鍍液中常外加酸做為支撐性電解質,用來減少電鍍時產生高電阻現象,避免陰極產生氫氣的副反應;而氯離子則扮演鍍液中觸媒的角色。

In modern life, people are using electronic products that are light, thin, short, small, multifunctional and communication-rapid. To achieve this goal, electronic devices that have narrow line widths and high density interconnect (HDI) are being vigorously developed. IC chip packaging will benefit from two-dimensional connection turning towards three-dimensional stacking technology. However, the volume shrinkage in electronic devices results in a high aspect of conducting through-holes that are used as the message channels. The high aspect ratio through hole renders current density distribution in the hole and at the hole mouth to be not uniform during copper plating, which increases difficulty in copper superfilling of through holes. For this reason, many people added chemical additives in the copper plating solution, but the more additives in the plating solution, the more complicated mechanism in the copper plating.
Regarding plating additives, leveler usually is the organic heterocyclic compound (Azole Compound) that has a quaternary ammonium (R4N+). Leveler can prevent copper ions from fast reduction and deposition at the hole mouth where the current density distribution is high; the organosulfide additives, also known as accelerators and referred to as brighteners, enable rapid copper deposition. In addition, acids are often added as supporting electrolytes to reduce the resistance of the plating solution and to avoid a side reaction of hydrogen generation at the cathode; the chloride ions play a catalytic role in the copper plating bath.
In this work, I first used leveler and chloride ion and adjusted acid concentration with a simple formulation to fill the through hole in the butterfly filling mode. According to past experience, only three additives can perform copper superfilling of a through hole in the absence of acid, but there are cracks in the copper deposition. If 0.54M sulfuric acid is present in the plating solution, then the deposited copper structure is improved but precipitate is also produced in the plating solution. In this work, organic acids were employed solve these problems, copper cracks and plating solution precipitation. A single additive combining with organic acid can fill up the through-hole.
On the other hand, the PCB sample was put in a pre-dip bath containing an organosulfide and plated in a plating bath containing leveler and chloride ions to obtain a novel plating mechanism for filling the through-hole. Copper was preferentially deposited at the center of the through hole, but it is different from the butterfly filling mode. The copper deposition profile is not like butterfly wings but a plug stuffed in the center of the hole. The plate surface and the hole mouth portion did not have copper deposition. After copper filling, no V-shaped recess remained on the hole opening portion, forming a very thin surface copper layer on the PCB sample. This is referred to as H-type filling technique.
其他識別: U0005-1807201314145300
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