Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/30890
標題: 台灣山藥線蟲病害之發生、鑑定及檢疫處理研究
The occurrence, identification and quarantine control of yam nematode diseases in Taiwan
作者: 林冠成
Lin, Guan-Cheng
關鍵字: yam nematode;山藥
出版社: 植物病理學系所
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摘要: 
根瘤線蟲危害山藥會造成薯塊上瘤狀突起,而根腐線蟲則在山藥薯塊上造成乾裂腐敗等病徵,兩者在薯塊上之危害皆可由表皮層隨時間增加而往深層組織發展。從罹患根瘤病山藥薯塊上分離出之線蟲,經掃描式電子顯微鏡(SEM)陰門膜紋(Perineal pattern)觀察及二齡幼蟲尾部測量值鑑定,為南方根瘤線蟲(Meloidogyne incognita)。罹患乾腐病薯塊上分離出之線蟲,經蟲體型態特徵及測量值鑑定,為南方根腐線蟲 (Pratylenchus coffeae)。將分離得之南方根瘤線蟲及南方根腐線蟲分別回接至原寄主植物,60 天後可在薯塊產生與原標本相同之瘤狀突起及乾腐病徵,且在薯塊中亦可發現南方根瘤線蟲及南方根腐線蟲之存在。南方根瘤線蟲及南方根腐線蟲初期皆由山藥之根部侵入,在根部取食、生長及繁殖,當薯塊開始發育即侵入薯塊。由溫室接種結果顯示,南方根瘤線蟲在山藥上約 25 天可完成生活史;南方根腐線蟲約 24 天可完成生活史。對田間收集之 18 種品系之山藥做感受性測試,結果以左鎮栽培之原生種山藥對南方根瘤線蟲及南方根腐線蟲最敏感,在接種 30 天後根瘤指數為 3.4,根部壞疽指數 2.0;相較於紫紅薯之根瘤指數 0.6,泰雅瓶形薯之根部壞疽指數 0.4,且南方根瘤線蟲及南方根腐線蟲對所蒐集的 18 個山藥品系皆有侵染能力。田間調查顯示,四月起在罹根瘤線蟲及根腐線蟲之山藥田中種植山藥,於九月時,根瘤線蟲族群達到最高峰;而根腐線蟲則在十月時達到最高峰。以五種殺線蟲劑處理或以溴化甲烷燻蒸,皆無法除滅山藥薯塊中之根瘤線蟲及根腐線蟲。以溫水處理罹根瘤病或罹乾腐病之山藥薯塊,溫度 51℃ 以上處理 30 分鐘,以及 50℃ 以上處理 90 分鐘,即可除滅山藥薯塊中之根瘤線蟲;溫度在 49℃ 以上浸泡 30 分鐘,以及 48℃ 以上處理 90 分鐘,亦可除滅山藥薯塊中之根腐線蟲。

The root knot nematode caused galling, and the root lesion nematode caused dry rot and decay symptoms on yam tubers. The damage on tubers by these nematodes would increase with time and to deepen from surface to the inner tissue. Root knot nematode that caused galling was identified as Meloidogyne incognita by perineal pattern and body dimension. Root lesion nematode that caused dry rot was identified as Pratylenchus coffeae by morphomatrics and body dimension. Re-inoculation of Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus coffeae onto yam tuber could result the same symptom 60 days after inoculation, and the same nematodes could be isolated again from yam tubers . At the beginning, Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus coffeae penetrated into roots, to feed, and reproduce, and the developed tubers were infected by the offspring. The life cycle of Meloidogyne incognita in yam roots was 25 days, and Pratylenchus coffeae 24 days. The susceptibility test of 18 yam cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus coffeae indicated that the primate species from Zuojhen Tainan County was the most susceptible cultivar to both Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus coffeae. In April, yams planted in fields that had Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus coffeae, the maximum population of Meloidogyne incognita in soil was in September and Pratylenchus coffeae in October. Five nematicides and methyl bromide fumigant treatments could not kill all the nematodes inside the yam tubers. However, hot water treatments in 30 minutes over 51℃ or in 90 minutes over 50℃ could kill all Meloidogyne incognita within yam tubers, and 30 minutes over 49℃ or in 90 minutes over 48℃ could kill all Pratylenchus coffeae within yam tubers.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/30890
其他識別: U0005-2208200620235800
Appears in Collections:植物病理學系

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