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標題: 台灣產胡瓜尖鐮胞菌之病原性、營養體親和群以及逢機增幅多形性DNA特性
Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum isolates obtained from cucumber in Taiwan by pathogenicity, VCG and RAPD
作者: 黃明進
Huang, Ming-Jin
關鍵字: forma specialis;生理分化型;Fusarium wilt;root and stem rot;vegetative compatibility group;random amplification of polymorphic DNA;萎凋病;根腐及莖腐病;營養體親和群;逢機增幅多形性DNA
出版社: 植物病理學系所
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APS, Minnesota, USA.
危害胡瓜的尖鐮胞菌(Fusarium oxysporum)有兩個生理分化型,分別是引起萎凋病的F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum(F.o.c.)和引起根腐及莖腐病的F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum(F.o.r.c.)。F.o.c.與F.o.r.c.之區別主要乃基於病徵、寄主範圍、最適發病溫度和營養體親和群(vegetative compatibility group, VCG)的不同,以及可用逢機增幅多形性DNA(random amplification of polymorphic DNA, RAPD)技術加以區別。在台灣,筆者於2003-2005年的田間病害調查中、南部的胡瓜田,發現罹患萎凋病的罹病株有的萎凋,有的表現根腐與莖腐的病徵。收集胡瓜產之尖鐮胞菌10個菌株加上購自美國菌種保存中心(American Type Culture Collection, ATCC)之F.o.c.標準菌株(ATCC 16416)以及12個F.o.c.與F.o.r.c.之VCG標準菌株來進行接種試驗,比較他們引起的病徵、寄主範圍與最適發病溫度,並測定VCG與RAPD等特性。結果顯示利用土壤混菌法接種胡瓜苗「萬吉」,除ATCC 16416外,其餘台灣產菌株均會造成根腐與莖腐的病徵。台灣產2個菌株(Foc-150與Foc-151)可感染胡瓜、洋香瓜、香瓜與西瓜,但ATCC 16416只能感染前三者,而不會感染西瓜。台灣產3個菌株(Foc-100、Foc-183與Foc-829)在17和28℃條件下均會使胡瓜發病,其餘台灣產供試菌株及ATCC 16416均在28℃為最適發病溫度。又在VCG的測試顯示,台灣產只有1個菌株(Foc-100)是屬於F.o.c.中VCG 0180的一群,其餘供試菌株則尚無法鑑定。利用UBC438、UBC489與UBC890三個引子作RAPD分析,結果顯示台灣產供試菌株與ATCC 16416及F.o.r.c.之VCG標準菌株(ATCC 204369與ATCC 204371)間的相似度僅56%,然而從引子UBC489和UBC890所增幅的RAPD指紋型來看,有4個菌株(Foc-100、Foc-151、Foc-183及Foc-106)與ATCC 16416類似。從上述接種病徵、寄主範圍、最適發病溫度、VCG及RAPD的測試結果指出,台灣產胡瓜萎凋病菌仍鑑定為Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum。

Two forma specialis (f. sp.) of Fusarium oxysporum were reported to be able to infect cucumber. One, which was Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, caused Fusarium wilt of cucumber, and the other, F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum (F.o.r.c.), caused root and stem rot of cucumber. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum could be distinguished from F.o.c. with symptoms, host range, optimum infection temperature and vegetative compatibility group (VCG). Also, some scholars used random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to distinguish these two forma specialis. In field of central and southern Taiwan, we found some of the diseased cucumber plants expressed wilt and some showed root and stem rot from 2003 to 2005. Ten pathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum which we collected from diseased cucumber were compared with the type strain of F.o.c. (ATCC 16416) and 12 VCG testers of F.o.c. and F.o.r.c. obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) according to symptoms, host rang, optimum infection temperature, VCG and RAPD fingerprinting. All Taiwan isolates could cause root and stem rot of cucumber plants (Vantage) by using soil infestation inoculation method, but ATCC 16416 did not. Two Taiwan isolates Foc-150 and Foc-151 could infect cucumber, muskmelon, melon and watermelon, but isolate ATCC 16416 could only infect cucumber, muskmelon and melon, not watermelon. Although 3 Taiwan isolates Foc-100, Foc-183 and Foc-829 could infect cucumber at both 17 and 28℃, the optimum infection temperature of other Taiwan isolates and isolate ATCC 16416 was 28℃. Vegetative compatibility tests indicated that 100M16, the nit mutant of isolate Foc-100 was VCG 0180 of F.o.c. The similarity ratios of RAPD of Taiwan isolates compared with ATCC 16416 and VCG testers of F.o.r.c. were only 56% by using primer UBC438, UBC489 and UBC890. But RAPD fingerprinting of 4 isolates Foc-100, Foc-151, Foc-183 and Foc106 by using primers UBC489 and UBC890 were similar to isolate ATCC 16416. Based on the results of symptoms, host range, optimum infection temperature, VCG and RAPD indicated that the Fusarium wilt pathogen of cucumber obtained from Taiwan was still identified as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.
其他識別: U0005-2707200617330000
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